Eyona Ukuphuculwa Kwekhaya Iindidi zophahla (Izinto zokuphahla kunye neMilo esiKhokelo sokuGqibela)

Iindidi zophahla (Izinto zokuphahla kunye neMilo esiKhokelo sokuGqibela)

Wamkelekile kwisikhokelo sethu sokugqibela malunga neendidi zophahla, ezona milo zaziwayo kunye nezinto zokuphahla.
Indlu entle enophahla lwe-asphaltIxesha elinophahla phezu kwentloko yakho libonisa indlela olubaluleke ngayo uphahla kulwakhiwo. Oku kungqina kuphela ukuba indlu ayigqibi ngaphandle kophahla. Ayaneli kunika ii-aesthetics ezibonakalayo ezongezelelweyo kodwa isebenzela imisebenzi emininzi ebalaseleyo. Isinika indawo yokuhlala kunye nenkuselo kwizinto ezinjengemvula, ilanga elishushu kunye nekhephu.

Uphahla oluqinileyo lukwagcina yonke into esiyakhele endlwini ikhuselekile, yomile kwaye ihleli kakuhle. Uphahla olungacwangciswanga nolungazinzanga luchaphazela yonke into eyenye kubume kwanendlela esiphila ngayo-ekungenzakaliseni izinto zethu zexabiso ngenxa yokuvuza okubangela amanzi onakalise izindlu zangaphakathi, ukuya kuthi kubize amakhulu eedola ukulungisa olo phahla luphosakeleyo. Kubalulekile ukuba ukhethe uhlobo olufanelekileyo lokuphahla ukuqinisekisa ukuba indlu yakho inokuhlala amashumi eminyaka.



Uhlobo, izinto kunye nokumila kophahla konke kubalulekile ekwakheni uyilo olusebenzayo nolunqwenelekayo ekhaya. Ukuze ukhulise ixabiso lekhaya lakho kwaye uhlaziye ukubukeka kwayo, kubalulekile ukwazi ezinye iinkcukacha ezisisiseko malunga nokuyila kophahla kunye nendlela ezinokuchaphazela ngayo ikhaya lakho.

Apha ngezantsi sikunika eyakho inguqulelo yesikhokelo sakho sokugqibela kuyilo lophahla ukukunceda uthathe isigqibo sokuba yeyiphi eyona ilungileyo kwikhaya lakho.

Isiqulatho



Iindidi zezinto zophahla

Kukho uluhlu olubanzi lwezinto onokukhetha kuzo zokuphahla ezikhoyo kwimarike. Kwaye into nganye yahlulwe yangamacandelo ahlukeneyo, kuxhomekeke kwifom nohlobo lofakelo. Apha ngezantsi, sikunceda ukuba ujonge ezona ntlobo zixhaphakileyo zezinto zokuphahla onokuzisebenzisa ukwakha ikhaya lakho, kunye nesishwankathelo seempawu zabo ezilungileyo nezingalunganga.

Metal zophahla

Uphahla lwentsimbi kwindlu yanamhlanjeIsinyithi yenye yezona zinto zixhaphakileyo zokuphahla kwimizi yendabuko kunye neyangoku. Uphahla lwentsimbi luthathwa njengenye yezona ntlobo zomeleleyo zophahla lwezinto - ukukwazi ukumelana neemeko zemozulu ezibi kakhulu kwaye uxhathise izinto zangaphandle ezingqwabalala ezinje ngekhephu, imvula, umoya omkhulu kunye nobushushu. Ngaphandle kwalonto, uphahla lwentsimbi alunakufikelwa ngumngundo, ukungunda, izinambuzane nokubola.

Kuyomelela ngakumbi xa kuthelekiswa ne-asphalt kunye nophahla lweenkuni. Njengoko kuyinto engenakutshiswa, uphahla lwentsimbi luhlala lubekwe kwinqanaba lokumelana nomlilo kuDidi A. Nangona kunjalo, olu hlengahlengiso lunokutshintsha ngokuxhomekeka kwizinto eziphantsi kwalo (umzekelo, uphahla lwentsimbi olusetyenziswe ngaphezulu komthi womthi kufana nobushushu obungapheliyo ngokukhawuleza, yiyo loo nto lubekwe kwinqanaba lokumelana nomlilo kuDidi C).



Ukongeza kwezi zibonelelo zininzi, uphahla lwentsimbi lukwanokunceda ekuqhubeni ubushushu. Isinyithi sinokubonisa ubushushu elangeni, ngaloo ndlela sinciphise ubushushu endlwini yakho. Ngenxa yoko, ukufumana ubushushu obuphantsi kuya kukhokelela kulondolozo ngokusetyenziswa kwemeko yomoya.

Nangona kunjalo, kusekho izithintelo ezimbalwa kuphahla lwentsimbi, enye yeyona nto ibiza kakhulu xa kuthelekiswa nezinye izinto zokuphahla, ngokubanzi ngokuhambelana nepremiyamu. Ukwandiswa yenye yezona zinto zixhalabisayo kuphahla lwentsimbi, njengoko lunotyekelo lokwandisa okanye lokuthenga xa luphantsi kobushushu okanye ubushushu obufudumeleyo, okuhlala kubangela ifuthe le-wavy. Ukutshintshwa kwakhona kuyinto encinci xa uphahla lwakho lwesinyithi luza ngobukhulu obukhulu kuba lufuna ukuba yonke ipaneli isuswe, endaweni yamacandelo amancinci.

Abanini bamakhaya kunye neekhontraktha ngokufanayo bakhetha olu hlobo lokuphahla kuba alulutho xa kuthelekiswa nophahla lwethayile. Ngokubhekisele kufakelo, inokulungiswa ngokulula kwiintsuku ezimbini ukuya kwezintathu, kuxhomekeke kubungakanani beprojekthi.

Ulondolozo ngobulumko, ezinye zokugqitywa kophahla lwentsimbi zihlala zithambekele ekuxobeni, ekucuthekeni okanye ekubuneni, kungafuna unyango olongezelelekileyo ukunqanda lo monakalo. Kananjalo, inomdla wokudilika xa iphantsi kwemikhosi engacacanga enjengelitye lesichotho elikhulu eliwayo, ke qiniseka ukuba ukhetha uhlobo lwesinyithi olungathambekiyo nolunganyangekiyo kukophuka.

Uphahla lwentsimbi luhlala lufumaneka kwiindidi ezimbini, ezizezi: iiphaneli kunye neesling. Iiphaneli zophahla lwentsimbi zahlulwe zangamacandelwana aliqela afana neepaneli zokuthunga ezithe nkqo kunye neepaneli zemithombo yeendaba ezenziweyo. I-metal shingles, kwelinye icala, ziingceba zophahla ezilinganisa ukubonakala kwe-asphalt kodwa zinamandla esinyithi. Iindidi eziqhelekileyo zesinyithi ezisetyenziselwa ukufulela yintsimbi engenasici, isinyithi, i-aluminium, ithusi, i-zinc kunye ne-alloy. (Funda ukuze wazi ngakumbi malunga neendidi ezithile zophahla lwentsimbi kunye nokujonga ngokubanzi njengoko sixoxa ngazo kweli nqaku.)

Metal uphahla Iindleko Ixabiso eliqhelekileyo lophahla lwentsimbi ludla ngokuba yi- $ 150 ukuya kwi-300 ngeenyawo zenyawo, kuxhomekeke kwisitayile. Olunye uyilo olucekeceke lophahla luyabiza kakhulu kwaye lunokubiza malunga ne-600 ukuya kwi-800 yeedola kwisikwere.

Umsebenzi wobomi : Ukuba ifakwe kakuhle, uphahla lwentsimbi alufane lufuna ukutshintshwa ixesha elide, elaziwa ngokuhlala iminyaka engama-40 ukuya kwengama-75. Nangona iyahluka ngokubanzi, uphahla lwentsimbi luhlala lunikezelwa ngabavelisi iwaranti yonyaka engama-20 ukuya kwengama-50, ngelixa ukugqitywa kwepeyinti kuhlala kuza newaranti yeminyaka engama-30.

I-Asphalt Shingles okanye iComposite

Indlu yophahla ye-asphaltI-asphalt shingles ithathwa njengezona zinto zisetyenziswa kakhulu eluphahleni eMelika. Ngokwesiqhelo isetyenziselwa indlu yesitayile sendabuko yasedolophini, olu hlobo lwezinto zokuphahla lufumene ukuthandwa ngenxa yokuba kuyabiza kwaye kulula ukuyifaka. Njengesinyithi, i-Asphalt shingles bubungqina bemozulu kwaye iyakwazi ukumelana nemimoya ephezulu. Ikwabekwa kwinqanaba lokumelana nomlilo, inika ukhuseleko ngokuchasene nomlilo osasazeka ngokukhawuleza. I-asphalt shingles ikwabonelela ngezibonelelo ngokwe-acoustics njengoko ibhloka ingxolo yangaphandle ngokufanelekileyo.

Olona ncedo luphambili lwe-asphalt shingles kukungafani kwayo. Iza ngemibala eyahlukeneyo, imibala, kunye nobukhulu kwaye inokusetyenziswa kwiindidi ezahlukeneyo zendlu. Ngombala obanzi wemibala onokukhetha kuyo, ukudibanisa kunye nokuthelekisa umbala wophahla kwibala elipheleleyo lekhaya lakho akuyongxaki. Inika into ebonakalayo ebukekayo kwindlu yangaphandle kwaye inokusetyenziselwa ukuvelisa iintlobo ezahlukeneyo zoyilo loyilo.

esona sipho sesibini esitshatileyo

I-asphalt shingles nayo kulula ukuyifaka. Xa kuthelekiswa nezinye izinto zokuphahla, ifuna kuphela izakhono ezilula kunye nokuphatha izinto kulula ngokulula kuba zilula. Ukufakwa akufuneki nayiphi na inkxaso eyongeziweyo okanye naziphi na izixhobo ezizodwa, oko kukugcina iindleko kubasebenzi kunye nokufakela.

Enye yezinto ezingalunganga zokusebenzisa uphahla lwe-asphalt shingle kukuba inobomi obufutshane ngokuthelekiswa nezinye izinto zokuphahla. Umgangatho we-asphalt shingles uyahluka kwaye unomdla wokonakala ngokukhawuleza ukuba umoya ongenisa umoya endlwini yakho uneengxaki. Ikwasilela ngokubhekiselele kwiipropathi zokugquma, njengoko ingatshintshi iqondo lobushushu eligqithisileyo. I-asphalt shingles ikwafuna ulondolozo lwamaxesha ngamaxesha ukuqinisekisa ukubonakala kwayo kunye nomgangatho wayo.

I-asphalt shingles iyafumaneka kwiindidi ezimbini, ezizezi: i-organic kunye ne-fiberglass. I-asphalt shingles ye-organic yenziwe ngamaphepha, agqunywe yi-asphalt. Kwelinye icala, i-fiberglass asphalt shingles yomelezwa ngumaleko wesiseko sefayibha egutyungelwe nge-asphalt. Ukutyabeka kwe-asphalt kuzo zombini ezi ntlobo kwenza ukuba i-shingles ingangeni manzi. Ngokubanzi, i-organic asphalt shingles yomelele ngakumbi kune-fiberglass asphalt shingles. Kodwa ngokubhekiselele kukhuseleko lomlilo, i-fiberglass asphalt shingles ayinakutsha.

I-Asphalt Shingle Iindleko I-Asphalt shingles ithathwa njengeyona nto ifikelelekayo kuphahla. Ngokwesiqhelo, inyanda ixabisa i-30 yeedola, ngelixa ixabiso ngesikwere sonyawo linokuthatha kangange-70 ukuya kwi-120 yeedola, ngokomndilili wama-90 eedola. Iikontraki zihlawulisa phakathi kwe- $ 3.25 ukuya kwi-4.25 yeenyawo zenyawo nganye kubandakanywa abasebenzi kunye nezixhobo. La maxabiso asenokwahluka ngokuxhomekeke kuhlobo lwe-shingle esetyenzisiweyo.

I-Asphalt Shingle Ubomi Ukuba ifakwe ngononophelo kwaye igcinwe ngokufanelekileyo, i-asphalt shingles inokuhlala iminyaka engama-20 ukuya kwengama-25.

I-Wood Shingles kunye ne-Shake

Umthi uphahla olunye kwindlu enkuluUkuxhonywa kweenkuni lolona hlobo lwesiko lokuphahla, nangona kunjalo, kule mihla ithathwa njengenye yeentlobo zophahla ezinqabileyo. Isizathu soko kungenxa yokuba xa kuthelekiswa nezinye izinto, uphahla lwenkuni aluzinzi njenge-asphalt shingles okanye kulula ukulugcina njengophahla lwentsimbi. Nangona kunjalo, iyathandwa kakuhle ngabanini bamakhaya kunye nabaqulunqi ngenxa yobuhle bayo bendalo obungenakulinganiswa nayo nayiphi na enye into.

Inkangeleko yophahla lwamaplanga itshintsha kakhulu njengoko indala, ijika ibe ngumbala ompunga ompunga kwimozulu. Ngaphandle kwalonto, uphahla lwamaplanga lubonelela ngezibonelelo ngokubonelela ngobushushu bendalo. Xa kuthelekiswa ne-asphalt shingles, i-shingles yeplanga ibonelela ngokugquma kabini kwaye inokugcina ukufudumeza nokupholisa. Kwakhona, uphahla olwenziwe ngohlobo olufanelekileyo lomthi luqinisekisiwe ukuba luza kuhlala ixesha elide, ngokuxhomekeke ekubeni lukwanyuswa ngokufanelekileyo kwaye lufakelwe ngokuchanekileyo.

Iingxaki zokuba nophahla lweenkuni kukuba ngokungafaniyo nezinye izinto zokuphahla, zihlala zibola, zibole kwaye zitshise. Ulondolozo yenye into ephambili, njengoko uphahla lwamaplanga lufuna ukugcinwa rhoqo ukuthintela ukungunda, ukungunda kunye nobulembu ukuba bukhule. Nangona kunjalo, oku kunokuthintelwa ngokusebenzisa unyango olufana nokufumana ubungqina bentsholongwane, izilondolozo kunye neembasa.

Ukuxhonywa kweenkuni kuhlala kuza ngeendlela ezimbini, ezizezi kukuxhuma kunye nokugungqa. Iintsimbi zomthi zinemiphetho egudileyo kwaye zisikwa zilingane ubukhulu. Babhityile kwaye bacaba, xa kuthelekiswa nokushukuma kweenkuni ezixineneyo kwaye ziyatyeba njengoko zahlulwe kwilog. Kwakhona, omnye umahluko kukuba ukushukuma kweenkuni kuhlala kwenziwe ngesandla ngelixa iinkuni zisikiwe ngomatshini.

Ezona ntlobo zixhaphakileyo zeenkuni zokuphahla ziyi-Red Red Cedar, i-Alaskan Yellow Cedar kunye ne-Eastern White Cedar. Ezi ntlobo zeenkuni zikulungele ukusetyenziswa ngaphandle kuba ziyomelela xa zimanzi kwaye ngokwendalo ziyamelana nokubola, ukubola kunye nezinambuzane. Ezi ntlobo zeenkuni

Uphahla lwamaplanga luhlala lusetyenziselwa ukongeza uluvo ezindlwini, ngakumbi izindlu eziphefumlelweyo, ii-bungalows, iCape Cod, ingcibi kunye namakhaya esitayile eTudor. Iza ngeendlela ezahlukeneyo zokugqiba

I-Wood Shingle Roof Iindleko : Uphahla lwenkuni lubiza ngaphezulu kakhulu kunezinye izinto zokuphahla, ngakumbi iiCedar shingles. Ngokubhekiselele kubasebenzi kunye nofakelo, uphahla lwamaplanga lukwabiza ngaphezulu. Nangona kunjalo, amaxabiso ayo aphezulu abonisa ukuba ayonga mali. Ngokubanzi, uphahla lwenkuni lubiza malunga ne- $ 350 ukuya kwi-450 yeenyawo zenyawo nganye.

Wood Roof Ubomi Uphahla lomthi olufakelweyo nolugcinekileyo luhlala iminyaka engama-25 ukuya kwengama-50.

Iithayile zophahla oluphathekayo

Udongwe lwespanish lwethayile yendlu yophahlaIithayile zophahla lodongwe kunye nekhonkrithi zihlala zi ethe tyaba okanye zibotshiwe kwaye ziza zinombala obomvu ocacileyo, imibala yomhlaba kunye nombala we terra cotta. Bongeza ukufudumala kunye nokuthungwa kwendlu yangaphandle. Ngaphandle kokongeza ubuhle kuphahla lwakho, iithayile zodongwe kunye nekhonkrithi nazo azinakutsha, zomelele kakhulu kwaye ziyaguquguquka. Udongwe kunye nophahla lwekhonkrithi ziqhelekile ukusetyenziselwa iMeditera, iSpanish, iTuscan kunye noMzantsi mpuma wamakhaya aphefumlelweyo.

Xa kuziwa kufakelo, iithayile zodongwe zokwenyani kunye neetayile zekhonkrithi zinzima kakhulu kwaye zinokufuna iinkonzo zobungcali. Ngenxa yobunzima bayo obunzima, iithayile zodongwe kunye nekhonkrithi zifuna inkqubo eyongezelelweyo yokuxhasa. Ukuphathwa ngendlela eyiyo kuyafuneka nanjengoko iithayile zodongwe nezekhonkrithi zinotyekelo lokuqhekeka, ukujija okanye ukophuka ukuba azinikwa nkathalo.

Ikhonkrithi kunye nodongwe Iindleko zophahla Iithayile zekhonkrithi zibiza ixabiso eliphantsi kuneetayile zodongwe, nangona kunjalo zithathwa njengezinye zezinto ezinamaxabiso okuphahla kwimarike. Ngokwesiqhelo, iithayile zekhonkrithi zibiza malunga ne- $ 300 ukuya kwi-500 yeenyawo ngonyawo wesikwere, ngelixa iithayile zodongwe zibiza i-800 yeedola ukuya kwi-1000 ngeenyawo zenyawo.

Ikhonkrithi kunye nodongwe lweThayile yeNdawo yokuPhila Iithayile zodongwe kunye nekhonkrithi zihlala ixesha elide kwaye zihlala zineminyaka engama-40 ukuya kwengama-50. Nangona abanye besithi iithayile zophahla zodongwe zingqinisisiwe ukuba zihlala iminyaka engaphezulu kwekhulu ngenxa yokuqina kwazo.

Isileyiti Shingles

Indlu yophahla yeSlate enefestile yokulalaI-Slate shingles zixabiswa ngokuzinza kwabo. Ngapha koko, benza zonke ezinye izinto zokuphahla zingaphantsi komgangatho ophezulu kunye namandla. Kuba yenziwe ngamatye endalo okwenyani, inokumelana nezinto ezikhohlakeleyo zangaphandle kunye nemozulu eshushu nebandayo. Abanini bamakhaya bakhetha le nto yokuphahla kuba izinzile kwaye inokuphinda isetyenziselwe ezinye izinto. Njengodongwe kunye nekhonkrithi tile, uphahla lwesileyiti nalo alunakutsha.

Eyona nto iphambili kuyo lixabiso layo eliphakamileyo, njengoko isileyiti ithathwa njengenye yezinto zokuqala zophahla kwishishini. Ukufakelwa ngobulumko, uphahla lwesilayidi lubekwa phantsi kwisakhelo sophahla. Ngenxa yobunzima bayo obunzima, ifuna inkxaso eyongezelelweyo kunye namandla eyoneleyo okuqinisekisa ukuba umthwalo owongezelelweyo wenziwa kakuhle.

Ulondolozo lukwabalulekile ekuqinisekiseni ubuhle kunye nokusebenza kakuhle kweethayile zophahla. Oku kubandakanya ukutshintsha iithayile zesileyiti ezaphukileyo kunye nokubengezela okugugileyo. Kwakhona ukufakelwa okufanelekileyo kuya kunceda ukwandisa ixesha lokuphila kwayo.

Isilayidi Shingle Roof Iindleko Ithayile yophahla lwesileyiti yenye yezona zinto zibiza kakhulu, ezixabisa malunga ne- $ 1100 ukuya kwi-2000 ngeenyawo zenyawo.

Isileyiti Shingle Roof Ubomi : Ixesha lokuphila kophahla lwethayile linokuhlala ukusuka kwiminyaka eyi-75 ukuya kwi-100 leminyaka njengoko kubonakala kwizindlu ezindala ezisekhona unanamhla.

Zophahla Synthetic

Indlu yophahla eyenziweyoSynthetic uphahla zezinye iindlela zangoku kwizinto eziqhelekileyo nophahla lwendabuko. Oku kubandakanya irabha, ipolymer kunye neeplastikhi. Oluphahla lunenzuzo yezixhobo zale mihla kodwa lilingise inkangeleko, umbala kunye nokuthambeka kwezinto zendalo ezinje ngomthi nelitye.

Enye yeenzuzo zokusebenzisa irabha, ipolymer okanye uphahla lweplastiki kukuba zilula kodwa zihlala zomelele. Kwakhona kulula ukuyigcina, isusa isidingo sonyango olwenziwa ngamaxesha athile kunye nolunye ugcino oluqhelekileyo. Xa kuthelekiswa neethayile zelitye lendalo ezinje ngodongwe okanye ikhonkrithi ezinotyekelo lokuchithwa okanye ukophuka, ezi zinto azibuthathaka.

Kuza kwimibala eyahlukeneyo kunye nezitayile, ezenza ukuba zilungele nasiphi na isitayile sokwakha kunye nohlobo lwendlu.

Indleko yophahla olwenziweyo : Iindleko ngobulumko, uphahla olwenziweyo ngokubanzi luyafikeleleka kwaye lubiza kancinci xa kuthelekiswa nezinto zokuphahla zendalo. Ixabiso lophahla lokudibanisa lwenziwa ngesiqhelo kwi-300 ukuya kwi-650 yeedola ngeenyawo zekwere.

Synthetic Roof Ubomi Uphahla lwendalo luhlala luza newaranti yeminyaka engama-50 evela kubanikezeli ngeempahla.

Asongwe zophahla

Yiva eluphahleni eshediniNgokwenkcazo, i-asphalt eqengqelekileyo yokuphahla okanye inwebu luhlobo lwezinto zokuphahla ezisekwe kwizixhobo ezifanayo ze-asphalt shingles, kodwa yenziwe nge-Organic yaziva okanye i-fiberglass mat. Le mat igqunywe ngamanqanaba amabini agcwaliswe nge-asphalt kwaye ajongana namacandelo egranular.

Iikontraki zikhetha ukuhamba nolu hlobo lwezinto ikakhulu ngenxa yemilo esele ikho okanye ithambeka lophahla. Yenzelwe ngokukodwa uphahla olungenalo ithambeka okanye indawo ephantsi kwaye isebenza kakuhle ekudaleni umphandle ongangeni manzi. Kulula ukuyifaka, ihlala ikhuselekile ngezikhonkwane zophahla olwenziweyo, nangona ezinye iintlobo ziza noncedo lokuncamathela.

Ukuphahla okurholisiweyo kungavala amanzi ukuba angakhi ngaloo ndlela kuthintele ukonakala kwangaphakathi kwekhaya lakho. Ivumela amanzi ukuba aphuphume ngokufanelekileyo, ngaphandle kokuba ifakwe ngendlela eyiyo, ukuthintela ukuvuza kuphahla. Olu hlobo lophahla lwezixhobo lukwafuna iigatha, iindawo ezibalekayo kunye ne-eves kuzo zonke iimbombo ukuhambisa ukuhamba kwamanzi kuphahla.

Ukuba eyona njongo yakho iphambili kukufezekisa ubuhle bendlu yakho yangaphandle, ke ayisiyiyo into efanelekileyo yokuphahla kuwe. Ukuphahla okusongelayo akukwenzi lukhulu xa kufikwa kubuhle. Ayicetyiswanga ngokwenyani izindlu, kodwa ilunge ngakumbi kwizakhiwo ezisesekondari ezifana neshedi, umasifundisane, igaraji okanye ulwandiso lwasekhaya.

Imibala esisiseko yophahla olusongelweyo ingwevu, mhlophe, mdaka kunye nomnyama. Aba bangathathi hlangothi bahamba kakuhle noninzi lwezindlu kunye nophahla esele lukhona. Ukuphahla okuroliweyo kuza kwimiqolo enokugubungela ukuya kwi-100 yeenyawo zenyawo. Ububanzi obuqhelekileyo ziinyawo ezintathu.

Iindleko zophahla ezidityanisiweyo Ngokwesiqhelo, iindleko zophahla ezityiweyo naphi na ukusuka kwi- $ 30 ukuya kwi-100 yeedola ngeroli nganye. Iindleko ziyahluka ngokuxhomekeke kubungakanani bezinto ezisetyenzisiweyo kunye neendleko zabasebenzi ezenziweyo kwiprojekthi. Unokuqesha ikhontraktha yobuchwephesha ukuba ikwenzele oku okanye ungayithatha njengeprojekthi elula yeempelaveki.

Asongwe zophahla Ubomi : Uophahla olujikeleziweyo lunobomi obusezantsi phakathi kwazo zonke izinto zophahla. Iya kuhlala iminyaka emi-5 ukuya kweli-10.

Ukutshiza kuphahla

Ukutshiza ngomsebenzi wophahlaUkutshiza eluphahleni luhlobo lwencindi yolwelo esekwe kulwelo esetyenziswa ngokuthe ngqo kumgangatho wophahla. Luhlobo kuphela kophahla olungenayo imithungo. Izibonelelo zokusebenzisa olu hlobo lokuphahla kukuba zibonelela ngeepropathi ezifanelekileyo zokugquma. Kananjalo, ayinxibi ngokulula kwaye ikuncede wonge amandla ngokupholisa indlu yakho xa kushushu.

Ukufafaza eluphahleni kuza kwiindidi ezimbini ezahlukeneyo, ezizezi ukufafaza amagwebu ngokugquma nokwaleka kophahla. Ukutshiza i-foam foam luhlobo lophahla olufafazwe ngokuthe ngqo kumgangatho wophahla, emva koko lutyatyekwe ngengubo ye-acrylic kunye nolwahlulo lwamatye okanye isanti. Njengoko igama libonisa ukuba olu hlobo lophahla lubonelela ngokugquma ngokunciphisa ubushushu kunye nokupholisa amandla emithwalo. Iingubo zophahla, kwelinye icala, zenzelwe ngokukodwa uphahla esele lukhona. Oku kuyilelwe ukongeza ubomi babo kunye nokwandisa iminyaka eli-10 ukuya kweli-15. Iingubo zophahla zihlala zisetyenziselwa ngaphezulu kweesosi ezikhoyo zophahla lwelindle okanye ithambeka elisezantsi lesinyithi.

Spray On Roof Ixabiso : Kwi-avareji, iindleko zokutshiza kuphahla lwentaba zii-1.65 zeedola ukuya kwi-2.25 ngeenyawo zenyawo nganye.

Chela kubomi boPhahla : Ubude bexesha lokutshiza eluphahleni kunokuhlala ixesha elide njengesakhiwo, ngokuxhomekeke ekubeni umaleko ongaphezulu ugcinwe kakuhle. Kuza kunye newaranti yokuvuza evulekileyo yeminyaka eli-15 evela kubanikezeli ngeempahla.

Iindidi zophahla lweTayile

Indlu entle ye-asphalt shingleIithayile zophahla yenye yezona zinto zidumileyo zophahla. Ukudibanisa i-aesthetics kunye nokusebenza, le nto yokuphahla ayenzi kuphela ukukhulisa isibheno sendlu yakho kodwa inika neenzuzo ezibonakalayo.

Xa uthatha isigqibo ngohlobo olufanelekileyo lwethayile yekhaya lakho, izinto ezininzi kufuneka zithathelwe ingqalelo. Okokuqala, misela iimeko zemozulu ezikhoyo kwindawo yendlu yakho njengoko imeko yemozulu ichaphazela uphahla lwakho kakhulu. Emva koko, jonga ubume, umzi, isitayile kunye noyilo lwendlu yakho. Uphahla olwenziwe kakuhle lunegalelo kwisibheno jikelele kulo naliphi na ikhaya. Ke okokugqibela, yazi uhlahlo-lwabiwo mali lwakho njengoko izinto zokuphahla zinokubangela isixa esikhulu ngokwempahla kunye neendleko zomsebenzi.

Iithayile zophahla zivela kwiindidi ezahlukeneyo, izinto kunye nombala. Uhlobo ngalunye luneempawu zalo ezintle kunye neempawu ezimbi. Apha ngezantsi siphonononga ezinye zeentlobo zeethayile zophahla:

Metal Roof Iithayile -Iithayile zensimbi ziyaziwa ngokuzinza kwazo kunye nokomelela kwizinto ezahlukeneyo zemozulu. Ziqhelana kakuhle notshintsho kubushushu kwaye zingqinwe ukuba zihlala ixesha elide.

Iithayile zophahla lwensimbi zakhiwe ukufana nokubonakala kweetayile zendalo zamatye. Yenziwe kusetyenziswa iishiti zentsimbi ezihlanganisiweyo ezisebenzisa indawo yokuqala kwaye zatywinwa ngetywina elikhethekileyo elithintela i-zinc oxidation. Inkangeleko yokubonakala ilumkile, zithatha uhlobo lothotho lweethayile ezincinci. La maphepha ke agqunywe ngombala wokuhombisa wepeyinti ye-acrylic eza ngemibala eyahlukeneyo. Elinye icala ligutyungelwe ngomaleko okhuselayo

Iithayile Roof Roof -Iithayile zophahla lweCeramic zenziwe ngumxube wezinto ezahlukeneyo zodongwe eziphantsi kobushushu. Ukufudumeza iithayile zokuncedisa ekufezekiseni uxinano olufanayo kunye nokusasazwa kombala. Ukugqitywa kweethayile zophahla zeceramic kubandakanya ukubengezela okanye ukutyabeka umbala. Eyona mibala ixhaphakileyo yeethayile zophahla lweceramic ezikhoyo kwimarike zimhlophe, ngwevu, luhlaza, luhlaza, tyheli, bomvu kunye noorenji. Ngale mibala mininzi, ukudibanisa kunye nokuthelekisa zezona zinto zixhalabisayo.

Iidillards umakhulu womtshato womtshakazi

Inye kuphela into ephawuleka ngeethayile zophahla lweceramic kukuba inokumelana notshintsho olukhulu lobushushu. Azonakalisi nokuba sele zichanekile elangeni, emvuleni okanye kwiqabaka. Iithayile zophahla lweCeramic nazo zineempawu ezintle zokugquma, okuthetha ukuba zinokuthintela ubushushu kakuhle kwaye ngaphandle kwaloo nto, zikwanazo ne-acoustics esebenzayo ethintela ingxolo yangaphandle ukuba ingene ekhayeni lakho. Ukongeza kwiithayile zophahla zeceramic azinakutsha.

Iingxaki zokusebenzisa iithayile zophahla zeceramic bubunzima bayo obunzima. Ngenxa yoku, ifuna iinkonzo zobungcali ngokofakelo kwaye ifuna inkxaso eyongezelelweyo ukuthwala umthwalo owongeziweyo.

Iithayile zophahla lweCeramic ziza ngeendlela ezintathu ezahlukeneyo ezizezi: iithayile ezicwangcisiweyo, iithayile ezinemigca kunye neetayile ezingasebenziyo. Iithayile zeCeramic ngumdlalo ofanelekileyo kumatye, izitena okanye izakhiwo zomthi. Banikezela ngehlabathi elidala elizenza zilungele izindlu zembali.

Iithayile zekhonkrithi Iithayile zekhonkrithi zenziwe ngesamente, isanti kunye namanzi. Inkangeleko yayo ifana nethayile yodongwe yendalo, enemibala eqala ukusuka kwibala elimdaka, bomvu, orenji kunye nangwevu.

Inkqubo yokwenza olu hlobo lwethayile yophahla ibandakanya ukuxuba isixa sesamente, isanti kunye namanzi, emva koko ulubumbe lube yifom emile njengethayile. Umbala ke wongezwa kusetyenziswa i-iron oxide. Iithayile ke zibekwa kwigumbi elikhethekileyo ukuze zome, ngexesha lakusasa, kangangexesha elithile. Le nkqubo iyaphindaphindwa de igcinwe ikhula kangangenyanga.

Iithayile zekhonkrithi zihlala ixesha elide kwaye ziyamelana nemozulu. Njengalo naluphi na olunye uphahla lwendalo, lubonelela ngezixhobo zokuthintela ubushushu kunye nobushushu.

Iithayile zeBituminous -Ikwabizwa ngokuba ziithayile eziguqukayo, iithayile zophahla lwe-bituminous zenziwe ngezihlunu ze-fiberglass okanye uhlobo lwe-canvas eselulosi kunye nebhitumene. Ukubonelela ngamandla kunye nokwenza iithayile zophahla zomelele ngakumbi, izongezo ziyaziswa kulo mxube webhitumen, ngelixa umphezulu wethayile ugqunywe ngegranite okanye i-basalt chippings. Ukutshintshwa kusebenza njengoluhlu olukhuselayo, kwaye kwangaxeshanye, komeleza ukomelela kwethayile. Ikwanika iithayile zophahla lwebhitumene inkangeleko yazo eyahlukileyo. Ngokubanzi, iipropathi zeethayile zophahla lwebhitumene zifana neplastiki okanye irabha.
Olu hlobo lophahla lwethayile lwaziwa ngokuthamba kwalo kunye nolondolozo olusezantsi.

Iithayile zophahla lwebhitum zihlala zisetyenziselwa uphahla olusicaba kunye nophahla oluphantsi olunotyekelo lwe> 12 degrees. Ngokumalunga nofakelo, luqhotyoshelwe kwinkqubo yokuphahla kusetyenziswa i-tile yokuncamathelisa kwaye ayifuni naziphi na izikhonkwane ezongezelelweyo ukuyigcina isendaweni. Ngokumalunga nobude bexesha lobomi, abathengisi bahlala beqinisekisa iithayile zophahla lwebhitumene ukuya kuthi ga kwi-20 iminyaka ngaphandle kokuba zifakwe ngokufanelekileyo ngumakhi onephepha mvume.

Iithayile zesanti ePolymer -Iithayile zesanti zePolymer zenziwe nge-70% yesanti ekumgangatho ophezulu kunye nebinder esekwe kwipolymer. Inkqubo yemveliso ibandakanya ukuhlamba isanti ukususa konke ukungcola, emva koko kudityaniswe i-29% yepolymer kunye ne-1% yedayi. Ikhaphukhaphu ngokuphindwe kabini kuneetayile zemveli kwaye kubiza kakhulu kwaye kulula ukuyifaka. Izibonelelo zalo zibandakanya ukumelana nemozulu kunye nepropathi elungileyo yokugquma. Iithayile zesanti zePolymer nazo ziyamelana kakhulu nokukhula komngundo kwaye ziyakwazi ukumelana nemvula eneasidi. Ngokwexesha lokuphila, iithayile zesanti zePolymer ngoku zihlala iminyaka engama-50 ukuya kweli-100 kwaye zihlala ziza newaranti yeminyaka eli-15 evela kumthengisi.

Enye yezinto ezingalunganga ekusebenziseni iithayile zophahla lwesanti epeyintiweyo kukuba umbala wayo ngamanye amaxesha unotyekelo lokuwohloka ngokukhawuleza kuba ayizizo zonke idayi ezisetyenziselwa ukuwenza ezinokuthenjwa kwaye ziyamelana nokubuna.

Ithayile yeCopper -Iithayile zophahla lobhedu ziyaziwa ngokuguga kamnandi- njengoko ivelisa i-patina entle xa igcwala kwaye idibana. Uphahla lwethayile lobhedu oluqhelekileyo luyatshintsha ukusuka kumbala wobhedu ukuya kumbala oluhlaza, luzisa ubuhle obucacileyo kunye nobunono ezindlwini. Ngaphandle kwe-aesthetics ebonakalayo, ikwaxabiswa ngamandla ayo kunye nokuqina kwayo. Iyakwazi ukumelana nemimoya ephezulu kwaye iyanyamezela kwinyikima. Ngenxa yokomelela kwayo okuphezulu, uphahla lwethayile lobhedu lubonakalisiwe ukuba luhlala ixesha elide, iminyaka eli-100 yobomi.

Iithayile zophahla lobhedu nazo ziza ngobukhulu obulawulwayo obenza ukuba ukufakwa kube lula nakwizakhiwo zophahla oluntsonkothileyo. Ingasetyenziselwa nasiphi na isitayile sendlu kunye nakwizindlu ezikufutshane nomzimba wamanzi anetyuwa kuba ayizukudla ngokulula. Olu hlobo lophahla lwethayile alunakutsha kwaye alusebenzi. Ikwayi-100 yepesenti enokuphinda isetyenziswe kwakhona kwaye ithathwa njengemveliso yophahla ekhuselekileyo kwindalo.

Nangona kunjalo, kusekho uninzi lwezithintelo ekusebenziseni olu hlobo lwezinto zokuphahla. Nangona zenziwe ngentsimbi, iithayile zophahla lobhedu zithambile kwaye zinotyekelo lokuqunjelwa, oko ke kufuna ukhathalelo olugqithisileyo malunga nokuphathwa kunye nofakelo olufanelekileyo. Kwakhona, ixabiso layo linokuba yinkxalabo yabanini bamakhaya njengoko ibiza kakhulu ngokuthelekiswa nezinye izinto. Kodwa ixabiso layo eliphezulu libonakalisa ukuba longa imali.

Iithayile zodongwe Udongwe lolunye lwezinto zemveli ezisetyenziselwa iithayile zophahla. Yenziwe ngodongwe oluqokelelwa kwiindawo ezigciniweyo ezahlukileyo, emva koko lubekwe kumaqondo obushushu aphezulu ngokubhaka kwiikhiln. Njengalo naluphi na uphahla lwendalo, iithayile zodaka zomelele kwaye zomelele, kodwa zixabiseke kakhulu ngenkangeleko yazo. Iithayile zophahla lodongwe zongeza ubushushu ngaphandle kwendlu kwaye ziyaguquguquka ngokwendlela yoyilo. Nangona le isetyenziswa rhoqo kwiMeditera ephefumlelweyo, izitayile zaseTuscan kunye nezindlu zaseSpain, iithayile zophahla lodongwe zinokufakwa ngeendlela ezahlukeneyo zezindlu. Iza kuluhlu olubanzi lweemilo kunye nobukhulu ngelixa umbala wayo wendabuko we-cotta ungapheli kwaye uhlala udlamkile iminyaka.

Ukongeza kwi-aesthetics yazo yendalo, iithayile zophahla lodongwe ziza nezibonelelo ezininzi. Inokuphucula ukujikeleza komoya ngaphakathi endlwini kwaye incede ekusasazeni ubushushu kunye nokugquma ngeentsuku zasehlotyeni ezishushu. Kwakhona, iithayile zophahla lodongwe zinokuqhubeka nezinto zangaphandle ezingqwabalala njengemvula okanye ikhephu. Ikwangumlilo.

Ithayile edibeneyo -Ithayile edityanisiweyo okanye iithayile zophahla zokwenziwa zizinto ezintsha kushishino lokuphahla. Yenziwe yohlobo oluthile lwesinyithi olunemigca emininzi ye-zinc kunye ne-aluminium engena kwii-0.5 millimeter sheet sheet. Oku kugqunywe nge-acrylic polymer yokugubungela kunye nokuchithwa kwamatye ukukhusela ekubambeni. Ukugqitywa kwayo kufana nokhuni lwendalo okanye uphahla lwamatye olwenza ukuba lukhethwe kakhulu ngabanini bezindlu kunye neekontraki. Ngokubonakalayo, azinakwahluka kwisileyiti sokwenene kunye neenkuni, kodwa iipropathi zazo ezibonakalayo kunye nezinto zeekhemikhali zizinto zangoku zokuphahla.

Iithayile zophahla ezidityanisiweyo nazo azinakutsha kwaye ziza kunye nenqanaba lomlilo lodidi A. Ngaphandle kwalonto, bayaziwa ngokunganyangeki kwemozulu kunye nokunganyamezeli amabala. Banobomi ubuncinci beminyaka engama-50 nabo, nto leyo eyenza ukuba ixabiso lixabise yonke ipenny. Iithayile ezidityanisiweyo ezinobungakanani obuqhelekileyo zihlala zibiza i-400 yeedola ngeenyawo zekwere-ubuncinci ubuncinci iindleko ze-asphalt shingle okanye ithayile yophahla. Ukufakelwa kobulumko, iithayile ezidityanisiweyo nazo kulula ukuzilungisa xa kuthelekiswa nesileyiti sendalo okanye iithayile zomsedare.

Ezinye izinto zivelisa iithayile zophahla ezenziweyo ezenziwe nge-polypropylene kunye ne-calcium carbonate. Le nto ilula kwaye inempawu eziphuculweyo. Oku kukwabiza ixabiso eliphantsi, kulula ukuyifaka kwaye ihlala ixhaswa ngewaranti yeminyaka engama-50 evela kubanikezeli ngeempahla.

Ezinye izinto ezizezinye zethayile yophahla edityanisiweyo zisekwe kwipolymer.

Iindidi zoPhahla oluPhezulu

Indlu yophahla eflethi inomnyango obomvuUphahla olusicaba lophahla olunentwana encinci yokungabi namabala. Ithambeka lophahla olusicaba lumalunga ne-10 degrees. Olu hlobo lophahla luxhaphake kumakhaya anamhlanje okanye ezindlwini ezifuna indawo yophahla eyongeziweyo. Ikwasetyenziselwa ulwakhiwo lwesibini olufana neeveranda, iibhalkhoni, igaraji kunye neeshedi kumakhaya emveli.

Ngokwentsebenzo, uphahla olusicaba alunikezeli ngokhuseleko olufanayo nolo lwethambeka. Uphahla oluthambekileyo lunokuwisa ikhephu nemvula ngokukhawuleza. Nangona kunjalo, kule minyaka idlulileyo, itekhnoloji iye yajongana nale ngxaki njengoko inwebu eyomeleleyo yophahla iphuhliswa ukuyenza ukuba ihambelane nophahla oluqhelekileyo oluthambekileyo.

Zintathu izinto ngokubanzi ngezinto zophahla olusicaba ezizezi: uphahla olwakhiweyo, uphahla lwebhitumene olulungisiweyo kunye nophahla lwelinye olunye.

Uphahla olwakhiweyo (BUR) - Uphahla olwakhiweyo luthathwa njengoyisemkhulu wophahla olusicaba njengoko lususela kwimvelaphi yeminyaka eyi-120 eyadlulayo. Iqulathwe ikakhulu yitela eshushu kunye negravel okanye i-asphalt esetyenziswa kwiindawo ezininzi. Iimfumba ezintathu okanye nangaphezulu zezinto ezingangeni manzi, ezinje ngeemvakalelo, ziyatshintshwa ngetela eshushu kunye ne-asphalt. Xa i-asphalt esetyenzisiweyo eshushu kunye ne-tar idityaniswa nebhitumini, inwebu yophahla iyenziwa. Kulungelelaniswa kunye nocwecwe lwamatye omlambo okanye igranikhi yamatye etyunyuziweyo ukuyikhusela kwizinto zangaphandle ezirhabaxa. Ngokusisiseko iqulethwe ngamanqwanqwa aleleyo ophahla oluvaliweyo kunye netela yetela. Olunye ukhetho oluphambili lusebenzisa inwebu ye-fiberglass.

Izibonelelo zokusebenzisa uphahla olwakhiweyo kukuba alunakutsha. Inye kuphela yezona zinto zibiza kancinane eluphahleni ezikhoyo kumzi mveliso. Ikwayenye indlela egqibeleleyo yokwenza i-asphalt shingles yezakhiwo ezinophahla oluphantsi.

Izinto ezakhiweyo zophahla nazo zinzima, kungoko zifuna inkqubo yenkxaso eyongezelelweyo. Ukudityaniswa kophahla kufuna ukomelezwa ukuqinisekisa ukuba umthwalo owongezelelweyo uyaxhaswa. Kwakhona, kunzima ukuzifaka kunye nephunga elinamandla. Akucetyiswa ukuba ube yiprojekthi ye-DIY kodwa endaweni yoko ifuna iinkonzo zokufakelwa kobuchwephesha.

I-Bitumen Roof eguqulweyo -Uluphahla lwebhitumene olulungisiweyo yenye indlela ye-BUR okanye yokwakha uphahla. Yimveliso esekwe kwi-asphalt eyilelwe ngokukodwa izakhiwo ezinophahla oluphantsi. I-Asphalt yenza uphahla oluguqulweyo ngebhitumene lube lula ngakumbi kwaye kulula ukuyisebenzisa. Izinto zokuphahla ngebhitumene eziguqulweyo ziyafana ne-BUR, nangona kunjalo isebenzisa umaleko owongezelelweyo wephepha leplanga eliqinisiweyo. Ipolymer eyongeziweyo ibonelela ngokuqina ngakumbi kwaye iphucula ukusebenza kwayo kumaqondo obushushu asezantsi.

Kukho iindlela ezininzi zokufaka uphahla lwebhitumene. Ezi ndlela zisetyenziselwa ukufudumeza, ukufakwa kubanda, itotshi ukufakwa kunye nokuzimela. Hot isicelo usebenzisa asphalt eshushu, ngelixa ebandayo isicelo isebenzisa inkqubo yokubanda adhesives. Itotshi esetyenzisiweyo, kwelinye icala, isebenzisa iwelding yobushushu.

Ukulungiswa kwephahla lebhitum kunika izibonelelo ezininzi. Ihlala ixesha elide kwaye ilungele uphahla oluphezulu lwezithuthi. Ikwanamanzi kakhulu kwaye iyakwazi ukumelana notshintsho ngequbuliso kubushushu. Ngaphandle koko, uphahla lwebhitumene oluguquliweyo luyabonakalisa kwaye lubonelela ngepropathi efanelekileyo yokugquma.

Ulwaleko olunye ndizayo Roof -Ihlala isetyenziselwa ulwakhiwo lwentengiso, uphahla lwembrane yenye yezinto eziqhubekayo kwitekhnoloji yophahla. Ikwabizwa ngokuba yimbumba ye-elastomeric okanye yeplastomeric, kuxhomekeke kwinto esetyenzisiweyo. Olu luphahla olunye-lwendlu oluza ngeentlobo ezinje nge: inwebu yerabha, i-neoprene, i-EPDM, i-PVC, i-polyethylene eneklorin, ipolymer, i-TPO okanye ukutshiza.

Ukuphahla okukodwa kuluhlu olunye, iphepha elinye lophahla olwenziweyo olusetyenziselwa ukungenisa amanzi. Inamathele eluphahleni olusicaba okanye eluphahleni lwophahla kusetyenziswa ubushushu okanye ukunamathela ngeendlela zoomatshini. Uluhlu olulodwa lwe-membrane eluphahleni luhlala luthengiswa kwimiqolo, ixabisa i $ 3.50 ukuya kwi-3.50 yeenyawo ngonyawo wesikwere kubandakanya zombini izinto kunye nomsebenzi.

Zininzi izibonelelo zokusebenzisa uphahla olunye lweleleko olunye. Okokuqala, kubonakalisiwe ukuba kuya kuhlala ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-50 ngenxa yokuqina kwayo. Ikwafikeleleka kwaye ithathwa njengenye indlela elungileyo kunophahla lwentsimbi. Umaleko owodwa wokuphahla ngenwebu kulula kwaye uyakhawuleza ukuyifaka, yiyo loo nto kubangela iindleko ezincinci kakhulu malunga nomsebenzi. Ngaphandle kwalonto, inokulungiswa ngokulula kwaye iguqulwe ngaphandle kwengxaki.

Phakathi kwezinto ezininzi ezisetyenziselwa ukufakelwa kolwelwwelinye olunye uluhlu, kukho iintlobo ezintlanu eziqhelekileyo ezifumaneka ngokubanzi kwimarike. Oku kubandakanya i-PVC (polyvinyl chloride), TPO (thermoplastic polyolefin), TPE (thermoplastic polyolefin elastomer), PIB (poly iso butylene) kunye ne-EPDM (ethylene propylene diene monomer).

PVC nophahla ndizayo okanye Polyvinyl chloride nophahla tyaba -I-PVC yeyona nto idumileyo yokuphahla inwebu enye. Ifumene ukuthandwa kwayo ngenxa yokuba bhetyebhetye kunye nokuguquguquka. Ukufakwa kophahla lwe-PVC membrane kuluhlu olubanzi lwemibala kwaye kunokusetyenziselwa naluphi na uhlobo lwendlu. Kwakhona kulula ukuyifaka-edityaniswe ngokushushu kusetyenziswa ubushushu ukudibanisa amalungu ngokudibeneyo. Oku kuqinisekisa ukuba imiqolo yenwebu yophahla ayinakho ukuvuza kwaye ayizukubethwa ngumoya. Ibhodi yokugquma ibekwa phantsi kwayo ukunceda ukunciphisa ubushushu. Nangona kunjalo, lo mgaqo-nkqubo ngamanye amaxesha ubangela ukubuyela umva okukhulu, ukuba uphahla lwendlu alunamoya unganeleyo, isincamathelisi esibambe inwebu yophahla lwePVC endaweni ingagqibela ikhululeke kwaye inokuba semngciphekweni wokungabikho ndawo kwimeko yomoya onamandla.

I-TPO okanye iThermoplastic Poly Olefin eluphahleni -I-TPO ihlala isetyenziselwa iinjongo zobunjineli, olu hlobo lwezinto lufumaneka ikakhulu kumadama okanye kwiitonela. Xa kuthelekiswa ne-PVC, i-TPO inobuhlobo kwindalo esingqongileyo kuba inokuphinda isetyenziselwe ezinye izinto. Nangona kunjalo, ngokungafaniyo ne-PVC eza kwimibala ebanzi yemibala, i-TPO iza kuphela kwimibala engacacanga yegrey. Ke, usetyenziso lwayo lukwanomda ngenxa yokunqongophala kokukhetha.

Enye into engalunganga kuphahla lwe-TPO ziimfuno zayo zolondolozo. Olu hlobo lwezinto kunzima ukuzicoca-zihlala zifuna uhlobo oluthile lwesinyibilikisi njengearhente yokucoca. Kwakhona ngaphambi kokudibanisa, i-TPO kufuneka icocwe kakuhle kuqala, okanye kungenjalo ayinakunamathela.

I-TPE okanye iThermoplastic Polyolefin Elastomer eluphahleni -I-TPE yinguqu ephuculweyo ngakumbi yophahla lwe-TPO. Olu hlobo lwezixhobo, izinto ezingalunganga ze-TPO ziyasuswa-ngokungafaniyo nophahla lwe-TPE, i-TPO inokudityaniswa ngaphandle kokufuna ukuyicoca kuqala. Kulula kwaye ngokukhawuleza ukuyifaka. I-TPE nayo kulula ukuyigcina kwaye inokulungiswa ngokulula. Ngokungafaniyo ne-TPO okanye i-PV efuna ukubambeka, imingxunya emincinci okanye ukugqobhoza kuphahla lwe-TPE kunokuphinda kuthengiswe ngokubeka ubushushu.

I-PIB okanye i-Poly lso Butylene yophahla Ukuba i-PVC yeyona nto idumileyo yokuphahla inwebu enye, i-PIB yaziwa ngokuba yeyona nto indala yokuphahla inwebu. I-PIB yenziwa nge-Polymer Oppanol, into efumaneka kwiintsini ezihlafunwayo. Yimbrane eguqukayo eneempawu zokumelana ne-ultraviolet. Kuza kunye nomda wokuzibamba, okwenza ukufakwa kube lula kwaye kukhawuleze kuthelekiswa nezinye izinto zokuphahla inwebu enye. I-PIB iyafumaneka ngwevu kunye nokugqitywa kwepeyinti yobhedu.

Ixabiso lokuhlala kwayo okuphezulu okuvumela ukuba ihlale ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-50. Nokuba uphantsi kweemeko ezinzima, uphahla lwePVC luyakwazi ukumelana notshintsho kwimozulu rhoqo kwaye luyala ukuxhathisa ngemichiza. Imivalo yayo ikwabonelela ngokungangeni manzi eluphahleni.

Olu hlobo lwe-membrane yokuphahla luhlala lufumaneka kuphahla lwentengiso olunezithuthi ezininzi okanye ezo zinezixhobo zophahla. Nangona kunjalo, oku kukwasetyenziselwa iiprojekthi zokuhlala. Njengazo naziphi na izinto zokuphahla, ubude bexesha lokuphila kophahla lwe-PV bunokulungiswa ukuba zifakwe kakuhle kwaye zigcinwa kakuhle.

EPDM okanye i-Ethylene Propylene Diene Terpolymer yophahla inwebu -I-EPDM luhlobo lophahla lwendlu olunye olunophahla olwenziwe ngerabha eyenziwayo eyenza ukuba iguquguquke. Ukubumba okuphambili kophahla lwe-EPDM sisiseko se-ethylene kunye nepropylene.

kwigumbi elihle lokuhombisa

Uphahla lwe-EPDM luhlala lufumaneka ngombala omnyama okanye omhlophe kwaye ithengiswa kububanzi obahlukeneyo obuqala kwii-7 iinyawo ukuya kwii-50 iinyawo. Ukutyeba okuqhelekileyo zii-mils ezingama-45 kunye nee-60 mils. Oku kuqhotyoshelwe kulwakhiwo ngofakelo loomatshini, ukubambelela ngokupheleleyo okanye ukubhalwa kwebhola. Imigangatho itywinwe kusetyenziswa uhlobo lokubambelela kolwelo okanye itheyiphu ekhethekileyo. Ukufakwa kulula ukuze oko kuthetha ukuba ukutshintshwa kwakhona kulula.

Olu hlobo lophahla lukwangqinwa ukuba luhlala ixesha elide kuba sele lishishino ngaphezulu kweminyaka engama-40. Iyakwazi ukumelana nesichotho kwaye inokuqhubeka nokuchaphazeleka kwizinto ezingaphandle ezinobushushu, kushushu kakhulu okanye kubanda kwaye kunomoya omkhulu. Inwebu ye-EPDM yophahla nayo ayinemozulu kwaye iyakwazi ukumelana ne-ozone kunye nemitha ye-ultraviolet. Ukongeza kuloo nto, inyamezelana kakhulu nomlilo.

I-EPDM ikwayilelwe ukuba ibe yimveliso yophahla lwentengiso kwaye ayisetyenziswa rhoqo kwiiprojekthi zokuhlala.

Iindidi zophahla lwentsimbi

Indlu yophahla ebomvuNgokuqhelekileyo, izinto zokuphahla zetsimbi ziza kumacandelo amaninzi e-shingle okanye kwiipaneli eziyi-12 ukuya kuma-36 intshi. Ezona ntlobo zixhaphakileyo zesinyithi ezisetyenziselwa ukufulela ziyintsimbi engenasici, intsimbi ebunjiweyo, i-zinc, i-tin, i-aluminium kunye nobhedu. Nazi ezinye zezinto ezithandwa kakhulu zophahla lwentsimbi, ezihlelwe ngokweendidi zazo.

• Izixhobo zophahla lwentsimbi oluqhelekileyo

Steel Roof (kwalenza) - Intsimbi lolona hlobo luqhele ukusetyenziswa lwentsimbi eluphahleni. Iyaziwa ngokuzinza kwayo kunye nokukwazi ukuziqhelanisa notshintsho lwemozulu rhoqo. Xa kuthelekiswa nealuminiyam, uphahla lwentsimbi lunzima kwaye lomelele.

Ngokwesiqhelo, uphahla lwentsimbi lusongelwe kwiziphelo ezininzi ezikhusela ekumelaneni nomhlwa. Ukugqitywa okunje kubandakanya ukutyabeka kwe-zinc, i-epoxy primer kunye ne-acrylic top coat. Ukutyabeka kwe-Zinc kuyitywina isinyithi kwaye kuyithintela ekonakaleni. I-epoxy primer, kwelinye icala, ibonelela ngokunamathela, ngelixa ukongezwa kwengubo ephezulu ye-acrylic kunika intsimbi imibala eyahlukileyo. Kuphahla lwentengiso, olufuna amandla ngakumbi, kusetyenziselwa ipeyinti ehlala ihleli. Umzekelo wayo yingubo ye-fluorocarbon ebizwa ngokuba yiKynar.

Isinyithi sibuye size kwifom yentsimbi. Isinyithi esenziwe ngesinyithi siveliswa ngokunika isinyithi umaleko wezinki ukuthintela ukuba ungarusi. Inkqubo yokuvelisa yentsimbi kwalenza iqala ngentsimbi enomaleko wentsimbi kunye nekhabhoni yentsimbi yentsimbi. Iya kuthi nkxu kwindawo yokuhlambela eshushu ukuze ikhusele. Xa kuthelekiswa nezinye iintlobo zentsimbi, i-galvanized iron ayisoze yenze umhlwa, nokuba ixhaphake kangakanani na kwimozulu embi.

Nangona kunjalo, kusekho iziphene ezimbalwa ekusebenziseni uphahla lwentsimbi kwalenza. Enye kukuba, ngenxa yobunzima bayo, kunzima kakhulu ukuyifaka xa kuthelekiswa nezinto zendabuko. Ngaphandle kwalonto, ifuna iinkonzo zobungcali ngokofakelo njengoko kunokuba nzima. Kananjalo indleko zayo zingqina ukuba zingumba kubanini bamakhaya njengoko zinokufumana amaxabiso. Nangona i-iron galvanized ibiza kakhulu kunophahla lwe-shingle, isacingelwa ukuba ifikeleleke, ibiza malunga ne- $ 3- $ 18 ngeenyawo zenyawo.

Uophahla lwentsimbi oluhlanganisiweyo luhlala lukhona kangangeminyaka engama-50 okanye nangaphezulu, ngokuxhomekeke ekubeni igcinwe kakuhle. Ukongeza kukuhlala ixesha elide, iyamelana nemozulu kwaye ilungele kakhulu izindlu ezikwindawo yesichotho. Iyaguquguquka-ibonelela ngeendlela ezininzi zoyilo onokukhetha kuzo. Ingasetyenziselwa uninzi lweendlela zokwakha nokuba inokuba yeyesiko okanye yeyangoku. Nangona kunjalo, akukhuthazwa ukuba kusetyenziswe kwindlu yaselwandle okanye kwiindawo zonxweme ngenxa yokubola.

Ezinye iintlobo zophahla lwentsimbi yintsimbi yeGalvalume kunye neNsimbi yeMozulu. Uphahla lwentsimbi lweGalvalume luyafana ne-galvanized, kodwa endaweni yokusebenzisa i-zinc nje kuphela njengesixhobo, lusebenzisa umxube we-aluminium kunye ne-zinc. Ukongezwa kwe-aluminium kwenza insimbi ikwazi ukumelana nokubola, kwaye kwangaxeshanye inika imbonakalo efanayo. Inika ukhuselo olungcono kumhlaba kunentsimbi kodwa kwalenza ukuba lukrwemeke. I-Weathering yentsimbi, kwelinye icala, yayiyilelwe iintlobo ezinobunzima besicelo sokwakha. Ukukhusela umaleko wangaphakathi wentsimbi, umaleko ongaphandle wenzelwe ngenjongo umhlwa. Oku kuthatha ixesha elide ukwenza. Ayenzelwe ukuba isetyenziselwe ulwakhiwo kodwa ngakumbi izinto zokuhombisa izakhiwo, ezinje ngophahla lwe-aksenti.

Aluminium uphahla - Phakathi kolunye uhlobo lwophahla lwesinyithi, ialuminiyam ithathwa njengenye yeendlela ezinokubiza kakhulu. Ixabisa ngaphezulu kunentsimbi kuba inokumelana nomhlwa, nto leyo eyenza ukuba isebenze kakhulu kwizindlu ezinokufumaneka kwiindawo eziselunxwemeni.

Xa kuthelekiswa nezinye izinyithi ezisetyenziselwa ukufulela, uphahla lwealuminium lunamandla aphezulu kubunzima bomlinganiso, nto leyo ethetha ukuba inokuba yeyona ilula kodwa yenye yezona zinamandla- sizathu sinye sokuhlala sisetyenziselwa izicelo zeshishini. Ngaphandle kwalonto ineempawu ezifanelekileyo zokugquma njengoko ingabugcini ubushushu ngokulula kwaye iphola ngokukhawuleza xa ivezwe kukukhanya kwelanga.

I-Aluminium yambathiswe ngepeyinti kuba ukubonakala kwayo kwendalo ayisiyonto inomtsalane. Oku kuyenza ukuba ibhetyebhetye ngokwendlela yoyilo ngenxa yemibala ebanzi ekhethwayo umntu anokuyihlola. Le mibala ihlala ixesha elide kwaye isebenza kakuhle ekuphuculeni isibheno sokunqanda. Kwakhona kulula ukusebenza kunye kwaye inokufakwa uninzi lweekhontrakthi ngokukhawuleza. Ukuphathwa kwemathiriyeli ayisiyongxaki kuba ubunzima obunzima.

Uphahla lwealuminium yenye yeendlela eziqhubela phambili kwimeko yokwakha. Kuyangqinwa ukuba kuhlala iminyaka engama-50 okanye nangaphezulu, ngenxa yokuba ifakiwe kwaye inakekelwa ngokufanelekileyo. Ikwangumlilo kwaye iyakwazi ukuziqhelanisa notshintsho kwimozulu. Ngaphandle kwalonto, uphahla lwealuminium aluchaphazeleki ngumngundo. Ukugquma kukwayisibonelelo esongeziweyo njengoko isebenza kakuhle ekugcineni izindlu zipholile ngexesha elishushu.

Isefu yentsimbi kwalenza Tin Uphahla - Okwexeshana, i-tin yayisetyenziselwa ukuxhapha ngenxa yokuba inqabile ukubola. Oku kwakudla ngokudityaniswa ngentsimbi ukuyenza inganyamezeleki kurusi nakwimozulu embi. Kule mihla, ukufulelwa ngetini kutshintshwe nge-zinc ukuze kusebenze njengokukhusela uphahla lwentsimbi.

Olu hlobo lophahla lwafikelela kwincopho yalo ebutsheni benkulungwane yama-20. Kule mihla, uphahla lwetini alubhekiseli kuphahla olwenziwe ngokupheleleyo nge-100% ye-tin. Ngokufana nophahla lwentsimbi, uphahla lwenkonkxa luqhele ukwenziwa ngumxube wezinyithi ezithambileyo ezigqunywe ngomaleko okhuselayo ukomeleza amandla alo. Ngokwesiqhelo, ukwakheka kophahla lwetini kwenziwa ngentsimbi egutyungelwe yipleyiti okanye iterne- indibanisela yezinye izinyithi ezinje ngetini, zinc kunye nelothe.

Uphahla lwesinyithi luyaziwa ngokuxhathisa komoya phezulu. Xa kuthelekiswa nezinye izinto zophahla, uphahla lwenkonkxa lunokukhusela kubushushu obugqithisileyo nakubanda, ukwazi ukumelana nezinto ezininzi zemozulu. Njengophahla oluninzi lwentsimbi, oku kuqhuba kakuhle ekugqobeni- kuthintela ubushushu ekwakheni endlwini phantsi kwelanga elishushu. Iyanciphisa ubushushu bemihla ngemihla kwaye igcina indlu ipholile. Uphahla lwesinyithi lukwacwangciswa ngokusingqongileyo.

Ngendleko, uphahla lwetini luthathwa njengolufikelelekayo ngokuthelekiswa nezinye izinto zophahla lwentsimbi. Ngokumalunga nobude bobomi, ihlala ixesha elide ukuba i-aluminium okanye uphahla lwentsimbi, ngaphandle kokuba igcinwe kakuhle kwaye ifakwe kakuhle. Uphahla lwe-tin olune-terne lungagcina ukuya kwiminyaka engama-90.

• Izinto zokuPhahla zentsimbi eziPhezulu eziPhezulu

Ubhedu Metal zophahla - Uphahla lwentsimbi lubekwa ngeendlela ezohlukeneyo, ezizezi, iisheyiphu, iisling kunye neethayile. Ithathelwa ingqalelo njengeprayimenti yophahla lwentsimbi, kuba ixabisa ngaphezulu kunezinye izinyithi, kwaye kwangaxeshanye, ijongeka ibhetele kakhulu.

Olunye lweempawu eziphambili zokuphahla ngobhedu bubuhle bayo obukhethekileyo. Ngokwembonakalo, uphahla lobhedu lunomtsalane ocacileyo nokahlukileyo onokuwandisa kakhulu umbono wakho wekhaya. Inomlingiswa okhangayo notshintsha kuyo yonke le minyaka. Njengobudala bobhedu, kuthatha imibala eyahlukileyo eqala kubhedu oluhle, umbala omdaka weorenji ukuya kwimibala eyahlukeneyo engwevu kwaye okokugqibela uluhlaza oluhlaza. Olu jongeko lwenyani olwahlukileyo ngokwenyani luvela ekwakhiweni kwepatina- ifilimu eluhlaza okanye emdaka ekhula kwizinyithi ngenxa yeoksijini.

Uphahla lobhedu kwisakhiwoUmgangatho wayo omangalisayo, ukuhlala ixesha elide kunye nokuphila ixesha elide zizinto ezithile ezibonakalayo. Uphahla lwe-Tin luyaziwa ngokuhlala ixesha elide kwaye luthathwa njengoluhlobo olusisigxina lophahla. Kubonakaliswe ukuhlala kunganyanzelekanga nokuba ezinye iinxalenye zendlu zitshintshiwe. Banobomi obuphantse baba likhulu leminyaka-baxhaswe zizakhiwo ezindala zokwakha ezazakhiwe kwi-Yurophu yakudala kwaye zoyisile ukutyhubela iinkulungwane zembali. Oku kuqinisekisa ukuba utyalomali lwakho kuphahla lobhedu luya kulilungela kuba indlu yakho ayizukuphulukana nexabiso layo ekuhambeni kwexesha.

Uphahla lobhedu lunokugcina indlu ikhuselekile kwimozulu embi. Ilunge kakhulu nakwizindlu ezichanabeke kwimimoya ephezulu, iqabaka okanye ikhephu. Igcina amanzi ekhuselekile ekuvuzeni kwimeko yeemvula ezinkulu. Ngaphandle kwalonto, ikwangumlilo. Kuba ikwanobunzima, akukho xinzelelo kuncinci kwinkxaso yekhaya lakho, ngenxa yoko kukhokelela ekunciphiseni iindleko zezinto kunye nezomsebenzi. Nangona ingaphantsi kobunzima kunezinye izinto ezenziwe ngophahla lwentsimbi, uphahla lobhedu aluyi kuwa ngokulula naxa luxhaphakile kwimithwalo enjengekhephu elinzima.

Kukwakhona ukugcinwa simahla, ngekhe kuruse kwaye kudle kwaye akufuni ukugqitywa okanye ukugqunywa. Ukugcinwa rhoqo akubandakanyi ukulungiswa kwakhona. Nangona ithathwa njengeyabiza kakhulu, kuyangqinwa ukuba lulondolozo olunobulumko kuba ufumana okungaphezulu kunoko ukuhlawulayo ekuhambeni kwexesha.

Yenziwe ngentsimbi eshayinayo -Intsimbi engenasici luhlobo lwesinyithi olwenziwe ngentsimbi, iipesenti ezili-10.5 ze-chromium, iipesenti eziyi-1.2 zekhabhoni kunye nezinye iialloys. Ubukho be-chromium benza ukuba umhlwa unganyangeki. Njengoko i-oxidize, umaleko okhuselayo wenziwa ngaphezulu. Oku kwaziwa njengobungqimba obungenzi nto, umaleko wokuziphilisa ohlala uqinile nokuba ubonakalisiwe ukufuma kunye nokufuma.

Izinto eziluncedo zophahla lwentsimbi olungenasici zibandakanya ukuhlala ixesha elide, umgangatho wobugcisa obuhle, intsebenzo yezoqoqosho, ukuphinda isebenze kwakhona kunye nofakelo olulula. Kuba intsimbi engenasici inqabile ukubola, inokuhlala iminyaka nasemva kokuba itshintshiwe kwimozulu kunye nokuvezwa kwezinto ezigabadeleyo. Ayizukuphuka nokuba kubanda kwaye inamandla aphezulu. Insimbi engenasici nayo inobuhlobo kwindalo njengoko inokuphinda iphinde isetyenziswe kwaye izalisekise iimfuno zolwakhiwo oluzinzileyo.

Iithayile zophahla ezingenantoNgokwendlela yoyilo, njengoko uphahla lwentsimbi olungenasici lunokuhambelana naluphi na uhlobo lwendlu kunye nolunye uhlobo lwesakhiwo, ngaphandle kobume bophahla. Inokudityaniswa ngokulula nezinye izinto zokwakha ezinje ngomthi okanye iglasi. Ukufakelwa ngobulumko, uphahla lwentsimbi engenasici kulula ukuyifaka, njengoko inokuthengiswa ngokulula. Inokuhlala ishumi leminyaka, ngakumbi iminyaka engama-20 ukuya kwengama-50 kuxhomekeke kwinqanaba lezinto ezisetyenzisiweyo. Kwakhona ubude bexesha lokuphila kwayo luyaphuculwa ngofakelo olufanelekileyo kunye nolondolozo.

Ixabiso elichanekileyo, uphahla lwentsimbi engenasici lubiza kakhulu xa kuthelekiswa nezinye iintlobo zentsimbi. Ihlala ixabisa i-9 ukuya kwi-12 yeedola ngonyawo wesikwere wohlobo lwepaneli kwaye inexabiso eliphakathi le- $ 900 ukuya kwi-1200 yeprojekthi nganye xa ifakiwe.

Indlu yezitena yophahla yentsimbi Izixhobo zentsimbi I-Metal shingles lukhetho olufanelekileyo kubanini bamakhaya abafuna ukujonga okuphakathi kwale mihla kunye nemveli. Uphahla lwe-metal shingle luhamba kakuhle ngakumbi ngezindlu zezitena kunye nezindlu zakudala zekoloniyali. Bahlala belingisa ukubonakala kwemisedare shingles kunye nophahla lwendalo. Ngokubanzi, i-shingles yesinyithi ine-aesthetics yophahla lwendabuko kodwa inikezela ngezibonelelo zophahla lwentsimbi.

I-metal shingles ithathwa njengeyona nto yesibini idumileyo yophahla lwentsimbi, ecaleni kweepaneli zokuma ezimileyo. Ezi zikhonkco zihlala zenziwe ngentsimbi kunye nealuminium, kodwa ziyafumaneka ngobhedu kunye nezinc. Ihlala igutyungelwe yiprimiyamu yohlobo lwepeyinti- iyonke iyisixhenxe seebhatyi zokuqala kunye nepeyinti ebhakwe kwisinyithi. Banobumbeko obuphantsi, obenza ukuba ukuhamba kube lula ngexesha lofakelo, kwaye kuza neendlela ezine zokudibanisa.

Ziyaziwa ukuba zihlala ixesha elide kunezinye iindidi ze-shingles. Iindleko ezizizilumko, i-metal shingles zikhetho ezingabizi kakhulu, ngamaxabiso kwi-6 ukuya kwi-8 yeedola ngeenyawo, kwaye i-avareji yeedola ezingama-600 ukuya kuma-800 kwisikwere xa ifakwe ngokupheleleyo.

IiPhepha zeThayile zensimbi -Iimakhishithi zethayile zetsimbi zenziwe ngophahla lwenziwe ngentsimbi kwaye zinikwa ukujonga okupheleleyo kophahla lwethayile. Iprofayile yayo iyafana nokuba ithayile yophahla yemveli, kodwa iipropathi ezo zophahla lwentsimbi. La maxwebhu aqhelekileyo apeyintwe okanye agqunywe ngamatye-ayenziwe nge-aluminium kunye ne-zinc yokugcoba egqityiweyo ngengubo ye-acrylic. Ukugqitywa kuyahluka njengoko kunokuba kugalelwe ipeyinti ye-polyester okanye kungabekwa iplastiki.

Le nto yophahla ilula kwaye kulula ukuyifaka. Ifuna ubuncinci kumalungiselelo esiza kwaye iyakha ngokukhawuleza xa kuthelekiswa nezinye izinto zokuphahla - kuba ngokungafaniyo neethayile zophahla ezibekwe ngokwahlukeneyo, kubekwa iipleyiti zetsimbi kwiphaneli nganye. Kukwakho neminyango embalwa, oko kuthetha ukuba kukho amathuba amancinci okuvuza. Xa kuthelekiswa neethayile zophahla zemveli, iiphaneli zethayile zentsimbi zinobunzima obungaphantsi kwesiqingatha kunyawo lwesikwere. Ukulungiswa kweeprojekthi okanye ukutshintshwa kwephahla, iithayile zetsimbi zigcina ixesha kuba zinokusetyenziswa ngokuthe ngqo kuphahla oludala. Njengoninzi lwezinto zophahla lwensimbi, iithayile zophahla lwethayile ziyakwazi ukumelana nokubola kwaye zinakho ukumelana nemozulu enzima.

Ubungqingqwa obuqhelekileyo bethayile yethayile yentsimbi ziimilimitha ezi-0.5 kwaye ubude buqhele ukuba ziimitha ezi-6. Nangona kunjalo, iiphaneli ezisikiweyo zesiko zinokufikelela kwi-30 yeenyawo ubude.

• Iindidi zeephaneli zophahla lwentsimbi

Indlu yophahla lwensimbiKukho iindidi ezine zeepaneli zophahla lwentsimbi ezizezi: iiphaneli zemigca ethe nkqo, iiphaneli ezimileyo ezimileyo, iipaneli zemithombo yeendaba ezimiselweyo kunye neepaneli ezirinjiweyo. Iipaneli zepaneli ezijikeleziweyo zibandakanya iipaneli zokuvala ezibonakalisiweyo kunye neepaneli zemiphetho yeenzipho. Ngelixa iipaneli ezimileyo zomthungo zibandakanya iiphaneli zokutshixa ngokukhawuleza kunye neepaneli zokuthunga ngomatshini.

Nkqo Iiphaneli Roof Roof - Ikwabizwa ngokuba luphahla olude olude, uphahla lwendlu eluphahleni olubonakalayo luphawulwa ngeembambo ezibaleka ukusuka eluve ukuya emaphethelweni ophahla. Oku kuhlala kunxityelelanisiwe kwaye kubotshelelwe kusetyenziswa izikrufu ngqo kuphahla.

Izibonelelo zokusebenzisa uphahla lweplani ethe nkqo kukuba ekubeni yenziwe ngentsimbi, yomelele kwaye yomelele. Iyakwazi ukumelana nemimoya ephezulu, kwaye ingqinwa ukuba iyasinda kwinkanyamba. Kwakhona, iyanceda ukunciphisa iindleko zombane kuba zisasaza ubushushu kakuhle. Ukongeza kuloo nto, inkangeleko yayo icwangcisiwe kwaye ichazwe kakuhle, kodwa ayinagalelo lingako kwixabiso lokuthengiswa kwakhona kwekhaya lakho.

Iipaneli zokuqinisa ezibonakalisiweyo, kungenjalo zaziwa ngokuba ziipaneli eziqinisiweyo ziipaneli zemiqolo ethe nkqo efakelwe kusetyenziswa amaphepha amakhulu athe nkqo athe nkqo. Oku kuphawuleka ngezikere ezininzi ezibonakalisiweyo ezibonakalayo eluphahleni. Iipaneli zokuvala ezibonakalisiweyo zisebenza kakuhle kwimimoya ephezulu kuba zibotshelelwe ngokuqinileyo, ngaphandle kokudibana okunokuthi kuvuleke. Olu luhlobo lwezoqoqosho lokuphahla

Iipaneli zemiphetho zenzipho, kwelinye icala, zizinto ezithe nkqo zophahla lweepaneli zokunikezela ezathi zaphakamisa ukuhlangana okungaphakathi kumda weepaneli. Ububanzi obuqhelekileyo bokuphakama kwamaphiko zii-intshi ezi-12 ukuya kwezi-24, ezinokuphakama kwe-0.75 ukuya kwi-intshi ye-1.25. Inomtya wokufihla wokufihla obaleka emaphethelweni eepaneli zomphetho ezimileyo. Izikrufu zisetyenziselwa ukuqinisa izinto zokuphahla kunye. Nangona kunjalo, olu hlobo lofakelo lunokubangela iingxaki ezimbalwa kwixa elizayo. Iiphaneli zinotyekelo lokugoba embindini kwaye zinokuzibandakanya kwimeko yomoya omkhulu. Enye inkxalabo eyongeziweyo kukuba izinto zokubopha kufuneka zifakelwe ngokuchanekileyo. Kufuneka zilungiswe embindini wemingxunya ebunjiweyo yeepaneli, ukuba akunjalo iiphaneli azizukukwazi ukwanda kwaye zinokubangela ukuba kuvele amaqhuqhuva. Esi siphumo saziwa ngokuba kukunkonkxa ioyile.

Ukuma kweepaneli zokuma Iipaneli ezimileyo zokuma ziiphaneli zophahla ezineeflanges ezifihliweyo yiphaneli elandelayo ukwenza ukubonakala okungaxutywanga. Oku kwaziwa ngokuba ziipaneli zophahla ezitshixwayo kwaye kufakwa kuzo kusetyenziswa izinto zokubopha ezifihliweyo kunye neziqeshana. Iziqeshana ziqiniselwe kumgangatho ophahleni ukuze zibambe iiphaneli endaweni yazo. Oku kunika indawo yeepaneli yokuhamba ngenxa yotshintsho olushushu. Olu hlobo lwepaneli ethe nkqo eluphahleni lwendlu iza ngobubanzi obahlukeneyo, ukuphakama komthungo, ubukhulu kwaye ziyafumaneka kwialuminiyam, intsimbi, zinc okanye ubhedu. Zihlala zisetyenziselwa uphahla oluphantsi kunye nophahla lwe-accent.

Iipaneli ezithunyelwe ngoomatshini ziyafana neephaneli zokutshixa ngohlobo lokuba zombini ezi zixhobo zisebenzise iiklip kunye neziqhoboshelo ezifihliweyo zeepaneli ezimileyo zomthungo. Umahluko kuphela yindlela yokwenza isicelo. Iphaneli ethungelweyo ngomatshini, njengoko igama lisitsho, ziipaneli zophahla lwentsimbi ezithi ziqiniswe ngomatshini ecaleni komnye, zisebenzisa izixhobo zokufaka izandla okanye umatshini, emva kokuba zibekwe eluphahleni. Olu hlobo lweepaneli ezime nkqo zingasetyenziselwa uphahla oluphantsi kakhulu, kodwa zixhaphake kakhulu kwizicelo zorhwebo. Yenziwe ngentsimbi okanye ngealuminium.

Umahluko ophambili wepaneli yokuma emileyo ukusuka kwipaneli emele nkqo luhlobo lwezikhonkwane ezisetyenzisiweyo. Iipaneli ezime nkqo zifuna ukufakelwa ngezikere eziveziweyo, ngelixa iipaneli ezimileyo zomthungo zisebenzisa izinto zokubopha ezifihliweyo.

Iimodyuli zePaneli eziCwangcisiweyo eziMiselweyo -Iimodyuli eziprintiweyo zemithombo yeendaba ziipaneli zepeyinti zangaphambili ezifana nezinto ezahlukeneyo zokuphahla. Kuxhomekeke kwipeyinti oyifunayo, iimodyuli ezenziweyo zemithombo yeendaba zihlala zifana neesingles, isileyiti, iithayile zodongwe okanye ukushukuma komthi. Olunye umahluko kwimithombo yeendaba yemodyuli eyenziwe ngeephaneli zisebenzisa i-acrylic yokutyabeka kwaye zinegranules zamatye ezifakwe kumphezulu wayo. Ezi ziyaziwa njengepeyinti zangaphambi kokupeyinta iimodyuli ezenziwe ngeepaneli kunye neeshiti zetsimbi ezibunjiweyo, ngokulandelelana. Olu hlobo lophahla lunokwenziwa ngesinyithi, ubhedu, ialuminiyam, zinc okanye iterne yentsimbi.

Iimodyuli zoomatshini bokushicilela abenziwe ziipaneli zihlala zinxibelelana kunye nokwenza imilo ekulungeleyo ukusetyenziswa ngokuthe ngqo. Ufakelo lwenziwa ngokusebenzisa izinto zokubopha ezifihliweyo ezifakwe kumgangatho wophahla. Iimodyuli eziprintiweyo zemodyuli ezaziwayo ziyaziwa ngokuthembeka kwimimoya ephezulu.

Iipaneli ezitshatileyo - Uphahla lwamaplanga olwenziweyo lunobume bokutyikitya kophahla lwentsimbi. Iindonga kunye nemijelo ezikumashiti ezomeleza ukomelela kwayo. Esi sisitshixo sokuhlala kwayo ixesha elide. Nangona ilula, iipaneli zophahla lwamazinki ziqinisekisiwe ukumelana nokubetha kuzo zonke iintlobo zemozulu. Ixesha lokuphila lolu hlobo lokuphahla linokuthatha ukuya kuthi ga kwiminyaka eyi-100.

Ezona zinto zixhaphakileyo zisetyenziselwa uphahla lwamazinki ziyi-aluminium, intsimbi kunye nobhedu. Yophahla lwealuminium lukhetho oluphezulu ngenxa yomgangatho wayo, ixabiso lemali, kunye nokumelana nokubola. Kwelinye icala, uphahla lwentsimbi olunamazinki lubiza kakhulu, kwaye ngesiqhelo luza ngombala oqhelekileyo ongwevu wendalo. Yophahla lwamazinki oluthambileyo lwendalo luyamelana nomhlwa, kodwa nalo luyabiza. Zonke ezi ntlobo zibonakalisiwe ukuba ziyanyamezela kwaye zihlala ixesha elide.

Ibhonasi: Ingxubevange yophahla - Ngokubanzi, uphahla lwengxubevange lulo naluphi na uhlobo lwezinto zokuphahla ezidibanisa izinto ezimbini okanye ngaphezulu zentsimbi ukubonelela ngokuchasene nokubola. Ngokusekwe kwinkcazo, oku kubandakanya, intsimbi ebunjiweyo (intsimbi kunye ne-zinc), i-galvalume yentsimbi (i-aluminium kunye ne-zinc), intsimbi engenasici (isinyithi, i-chrome kunye ne-alloys), kunye nentsimbi ye-terne (isinyithi esigutyungelwe ngephepha elicothayo lelothe kunye ne-tin).

Iindidi zeeMilo zoPhahla

Iintlobo zophahla zixhaphake kakhulu

Kukho iintlobo ezahlukeneyo zobume bophahla, nganye inezinto ezintle nezingalunganga. Apha siphonononga ezi ntlobo ukuze kube lula kuwe ukumisela ukuba yeyiphi esebenza ngokukuko.

Uphahla lweGable

Indlu enophahla lwendluUphahla lwegable lolona hlobo luqhelekileyo eluphahleni. Ewe, olu luhlobo lophahla esalutsala njengabantwana ngaphezulu kwezindlu zethu. Ikwabizwa ngokuba luphahla olumiselweyo okanye oluphezulu. Inemithambeka emibini kwicala ngalinye, efana nobume bxantathu. Olu lolona hlobo luthandwa kakhulu eluphahleni ezindlwini kwihlabathi liphela. Akubizi mali ininzi, kuyabhetyebhetye kuyilo, kunye nemozulu enganyangekiyo.

Umahluko phakathi kwesuti kunye netux

Eyona nto intle malunga nophahla lwe-gable kukuba izinto zityibilika emhlabeni ukusuka phezulu. Izinto ezinjengemvula nekhephu zityibilika ngokulula emhlabeni ngoko ke akukho kwakha phezulu. Akukho sidingo sokukroba nantoni na eluphahleni.

Nangona uphahla lwamagqabi lulungele imvula nekhephu, ayilungelanga iinkanyamba kunye neendawo ezinomoya. Kukho ithuba lokuwa kophahla ukuba izakhelo azakhiwanga ngenkxaso eyoneleyo. Umoya omkhulu unokubangela ukuba uphahla luphakame kwaye lukhutshwe kwisakhiwo ngokwaso.

Olunye uncedo lophahla lwegable kukuba lula kwayo. Olu luyilo lusisiseko lwenza ukuba ukwakhiwa kube lula, kuyenza ibize kakhulu ukwakha xa kuthelekiswa nezinye iimilo zophahla. Indawo ephangaleleyo phantsi kwayo ikwenzela indlela i-attic. Ngaphandle kwalonto, ukungena komoya kuyaphuculwa ngaphakathi endlwini.

Zine iindidi zamaphahla ophahla:

Vula uphahla lweGable

Indlu engasemva kwendlu enophahla oluvulekileyoRhoqo izindlu zineeveranda ezinophahla olwahlukileyo. Uphahla lwendlu oluvulekileyo luhlobo oluqhelekileyo olusetyenziselwa iipheranda. Uphahla lwegable oluvulekileyo alunasiling, yiyo loo nto igama livulekile. Olu luyilo lusetyenziselwa iipatio. Oku kunokusetyenziselwa namanye amagumbi endlwini, kodwa izakhiwo ezongezelelweyo kufuneka zibekhona ukubamba ubunzima bophahla.

Ibhokisi yeGable Roof

Indlu yophahla yeebhokisiOlu hlobo lwe-gable lunokongezwa koonxantathu kwisiphelo sendlu. Icandelo lophahla lifakwa ebhokisini ekugqibeleni. Ayinayo imiqadi eshiyeke ijinga emacaleni. Ngenxa yoyilo lwayo, inkqubo yokuhambisa amanzi kulula kwaye akukho manzi amileyo aseleyo. Iphakelwe kakhulu ke kukho indawo enkulu yegumbi eliphezulu. Oku kukwathetha ukuba umoya ongenisa umoya ulungile kuba kukho indawo eyaneleyo yokuba umoya ujikeleze. Inokufakwa ngokulula ngosuku. Ngenxa yokuba uphahla lwamagumbi, kusabonwa njengengozi kwiindawo ezinomoya.

Icala leGable Roof

Indlu enophahla lwendlu esecaleniOlu hlobo lwegable luphahla olusisiseko. Ineepaneli ezimbini ezilinganayo ngobukhulu ezihlangana kummango embindini wesakhiwo. Icandelo lonxantathu linokushiywa livulekile (eli ligeyithi evulekileyo) okanye lingavalwa (eliyibhokisi enebhokisi).

Umnqamlezo Gable Roof

Indlu yophahla enqamlezileyo

Umnqamlezo unemigca emibini okanye ngaphezulu yophahla olunqamlezayo olunqamlezayo kwi-engile. Kwiimeko ezininzi, ezi zimbini zibekwe ngokungafaniyo kwenye nenye. Izakhiwo ezinolu phahla zinobeko obunzima ngakumbi. Ngokwesiqhelo, kuphahla lwendlu enqamlezayo, kukho amaphiko ahlukeneyo. Omnye unokuba negaraji, kwaye elinye icala yivaranda.

Flat uphahla

Indlu yophahla eflethiKanye njengegama, olu hlobo lophahla luthe tyaba ngokupheleleyo kwaye alunanowuthi. Kukho inowuthi encinci yokuba amanzi angene kwinkqubo yokuhambisa amanzi nangona. Olu hlobo lophahla luqhele ukusetyenziswa kwizakhiwo zorhwebo, izakhiwo zorhwebo, nakwezinye izindlu zokuhlala. Ulwakhiwo lolu phahla lulula kakhulu. Kuba uphahla olusicaba nalo kulula ukwakha, ludinga izinto zokwakha ezimbalwa, oko ke kukhokelela ekongeni kwiindleko zokwakha. Uphahla olusicaba lubiza ixabiso eliphantsi - ufakelo lokuqala kunye nogcino kokubini ziyafikeleleka.

Uphahla olusicaba lungasetyenziswa ngeendlela ezahlukeneyo- le yeyona nto iluncedo kakhulu.
Uphahla olusicaba lubonelela ngendawo yokuhlala eyongezelelweyo enjengephahla lwophahla, ikhaya eligqibeleleyo leepaneli zelanga kunye nokugcinwa kweendawo zokufudumeza okanye zokupholisa. Ingasetyenziselwa ukwenza igadi ephahleni ehlaziyayo, ivumela umninikhaya ukuba anyuse yonke intshi yendawo endlwini.

Nangona kunjalo, uphahla olucwangcisiweyo lulondolozo oluphezulu kuba kufuneka lucocwe rhoqo. Nangona inokufikeleleka ngakumbi kunophahla olubekiweyo, awakhuphi amanzi ngokulula. Kukho utyekelo lwamanzi olwakhayo, ke oko kukhokelela ekuvuzeni nasekulimaleni kwixesha elizayo ukuba akukhange unakekelwe ngokufanelekileyo. Akukwacetyiswa ukuba kusetyenziswe uphahla olusicaba kwiindawo apho kukho khona ikhephu elinzima okanye imvula.

Mansard Roof

Indlu yophahla lweMansardI-mansard ikwabizwa ngokuba luphahla lwaseFrance okanye uphahla lomgaqo. Inamacala amane anethambeka eliphindwe kabini kwicala ngalinye elidibana nophahla oluphantsi. Uphahla lwe-mansard lwenza indawo ephezulu kwi-attic ekwakucingelwa ukuba iza kusebenza njengendawo yokufihla irhafu kunye nemvula. Yathandwa ngumakhi waseFrance uFrancois Marsart, kodwa akazange abizwe ngokuba ngumqambi wolu luyilo.

Esinye sezibonelelo zokuba nophahla lwe-mansard kukufaneleka kwayo kwizongezo ezizayo endlwini. Izongezo zexa elizayo zikwabiza kancinci kuba zinokulungiswa ngokulula sisakhiwo esele sikhona. Kuba ithambeka lokuqala lophahla lwe-mansard luthambekile, oku kungasebenza njengodonga nanini na ugqiba ekubeni wandise ikhaya lakho.

Owona mqobo uphambili kuphahla lwe-mansard lixabiso lawo. Kucatshangelwa ukuba kuyabiza kakhulu kunezinye iintlobo zophahla ikakhulu ngenxa yokuba intsonkothile ekwakheni, kungoko ke kukhokelela kwiindleko ezingakumbi zempahla kunye nezabasebenzi. Oku kuthatha ixesha elide ukufakela xa kuthelekiswa nophahla oluqhelekileyo. Uphahla lweMansard alulunganga nakwiindawo ezinemvula enzima kunye nekhephu kuba indawo ethe tyaba eluphahleni ayikuvumeli ukubaleka. Le nxalenye iflethi yophahla lwe-mansard nayo inomdla wokuqokelela inkunkuma ekuhambeni kwexesha, yiyo loo nto ifuna ulondolozo ngakumbi.

Indibaniselwano yophahla

Indlu yophahla yokudibanisaNjengoko igama libonisa, olu hlobo lophahla luyindibaniselwano yeentlobo ezahlukeneyo zophahla kulwakhiwo olunye. Indibaniselwano ayinasiphelo, inokuba yindibaniselwano yophahla lwenyonga kunye nophahla lwesingxobo, kunye nophahla lwe skillion ngaphezulu kweveranda. Oku kunika inkangeleko ekholisayo nenomdla ngakumbi kulwakhiwo.

Esona sibonelelo siphambili esinikwa luphahla lokudibanisa sisibheno esibonakalayo esinika umdla ezindlwini. Nangona kunjalo, iindleko ziya ziphakama njengoko uyilo lusiya lusiba nzima. Kukho amathuba aphezulu okuvuza kunye nomonakalo apho uphahla luhlangana khona ukuba alwakhiwe ngononophelo.

Uphahla lwe-Hip

Indlu yophahla lwe-HipUphahla lwenyonga lunamacala amane athambileyo alinganayo ngobukhulu. Ziza kunye phezulu ukuze zenze umqolo. Ithathelwa ingqalelo uphahla olusebenzayo kwaye ihlala isetyenziswa kwizakhiwo ezincinci. Kuzinzile ngakumbi kunophahla lwegable ngenxa yokuthambeka okungaphakathi kuwo omane amacala. Ijongeka ifana nophahla lwephiramidi.

Olona thuba lukhulu luboniswayo luphahla lwenyonga kukusebenza kwamanzi kakuhle. Kuba inamacala amane athambileyo, amanzi abaleka ngokulula kwimeko yemvula, iyenza ukuba ikulungele kakhulu kwiindawo ezinekhephu elinzima. Kwakhona, uyilo lwayo luyenza izinzile ngakumbi, oko kuthetha ukuba iyakwazi ukumelana nemimoya enamandla nayo.

Uphahla lwenyonga ludinga izinto ezingaphezulu kunye neendleko zabasebenzi xa kuthelekiswa nophahla lwendlu olusisiseko. Ngenxa yokuba kukho ngaphezulu kwemigangatho eluphahleni lwenyonga, kukho amathuba amaninzi okuvuza, ngenxa yoko kufuna ukugcinwa okongezelelekileyo ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukuba omnye umonakalo uyawuthintela.

Gambrel Roof

Indlu yophahla olungcakazaUphahla lweGambrel lukwabizwa ngokuba luphahla lwenqanawa okanye uphahla lwesiDatshi. Ngokufana nophahla lwe-mansard, ukungcakaza luphahla olunamacala amabini olunamathambeka amabini kwicala ngalinye ngelixa imansard inamacala amane. Olu luyilo luhlala lubonwa koovimba, ezindlwini zeefama, kwiikhabhathi zemithi, kwiidoloniyali zaseDatshi nakwizindlu zaseGregory. Le ndlela yophahla ibonisa ukubonakala okungaqhelekanga kodwa okunesitayile.

Uyilo olubanzi lwephahla lokungcakaza lwenza indawo eyongezelelweyo yegumbi eliphezulu. Kulula ukuyibeka ngaphandle kwaye ulwakhiwo lufuna izinto ezimbalwa ngenxa yoko kubiza kancinci kune-mansard. Nangona kunjalo, olu hlobo lophahla alukhuthazwa kwiindawo ezinekhephu elinzima okanye imimoya enzima njengoko uphahla lunokuwa phantsi koxinzelelo olukhulu. Uphahla lwe-Gambrel ludinga ukugcinwa rhoqo okubandakanya ukupeyinta kwakhona, ukubenza bomelele ngakumbi.

Uphahla lweSkillion

Indlu yophahla eyiSkillionKwaziwa nanjengophahla oluphalaziweyo okanye ukuxhomekeka kulo, olu phahla luyabonakala ngophahla lwalo oluthambekileyo. Kukwabhekiswa kuyo njengophahla olunesiqingatha, okanye uphahla olucekeceke engile. Ayinayo i-gables, i-ridges okanye iintlambo. Ihlala isetyenziselwa ukongeza endlwini njengeveranda, ishedi, igaraji okanye izitora. Amakhaya anamhlanje ngoku asebenzisa olu hlobo lophahla.

Uphahla lwe-skillion lolunye lolona hlobo lwexabiso eliphantsi lokwakha. Ngenxa yoyilo olulula, kulula ukuhlangana kwaye kunokuba yiprojekthi ye-DIY. Ayifuni nto ikhethekileyo kwaye inokunceda ukukhusela indlu kwilanga elininzi kakhulu. Nangona kunjalo, inokubangela iisilingi eziphantsi kwaye ayifanelekanga kwiindawo ezinomoya. Isakhiwo sinokubangela iingxaki ngokwamanzi.

Bonnet Roof

Uhlobo lwendlu yophahla lweBonnetUphahla lwebhonethi ngumva we-mansard okanye uguqulelo oluguquliweyo lophahla lwenyonga. Inamathambeka aphindwe kabini apho ithambeka elingaphantsi libekwe kwikona encinci xa kuthelekiswa nethambeka elingasentla. Ithambeka elingaphantsi lixhonywe ngaphezulu kwendlu ehlala isetyenziswa njengevaranda, yiyo loo nto iyenza yaziwe njengophahla lwendlu olukhatyiweyo. Izindlu eLouisiana naseMississippi zibonwa ngokubanzi nophahla lwebhonethi.

Kuyomelela ngakumbi ukuba i-gable kuba amathambeka akhusela iveranda kunye neendonga ekonakaleni kwamanzi. Ikhephu okanye imvula ihamba ngokulula emva kokutsala kwendalo phantsi kwethambeka. Ikwanokuchasana okuphezulu nomoya onamandla. Nangona kunjalo, uyilo lucelomngeni ngakumbi kulwakhiwo, lufuna izinto ezingaphezulu, ezenza ukuba zibize kakhulu xa kuthelekiswa nophahla olulula.

Iphiramidi yophahla

Indlu yophahla lwePiramidiOlu hlobo lophahla ngokwenene luhlobo lophahla lwenyonga. Uyilo kufana cone, apho kungekho macala nkqo. Amacala amane adibanisa ukwenza inqaku phezulu. Olu phahla luhlala lubekwa kwizakhiwo ezincinci ezinjenge-bungalows kunye neekhabhathi. Ziyabonakala nakwizindlu zamachibi, iigaraji kunye nakwizakhiwo zokugcina. Uphahla lwepiramidi lufanelekile kwiindawo eziphezulu zomoya kunye neenkanyamba ngenxa yokuba iyakwazi ukumelana nomoya. Olu luyilo lubiza kakhulu xa kuthelekiswa nezinye iintlobo zophahla ngenxa yoyilo oluntsonkothileyo.

Uphahla lwePyramidi luyaziwa ngeempawu zendalo zokugquma, ukumelana nomoya kunye nenkqubo efanelekileyo yokuhambisa amanzi. Iinduli zophahla lwephiramidi zibonelela ngomthunzi kuwo omane amacala endlu, oku kuyigcina ipholile ngeenyanga ezishushu zasehlotyeni ngaloo ndlela konga iindleko zamandla nombane. Ithambeka elilinganayo kwicala ngalinye lophahla lwephiramidi luyayenza ukuba inganyamezeleki kwimimoya, xa ithelekiswa nophahla lwesiko lendabuko. Iyakwazi ukumelana neenkqwithela kunye nemozulu embi. Okokugqibela, inenkqubo esebenzayo yokuhambisa amanzi kuba akukho ndawo ithe tyaba apho amanzi anokuhlala okanye akhe khona. Oku kunciphisa ukukhula komngundo kunye nexoshomba.

Olu hlobo lophahla ludla ngokubiza kakhulu xa kuthelekiswa nophahla lwemveli ngenxa yemali yezinto ezifunekayo. Iindleko ezongezelelekileyo zomsebenzi zikwanenkxalabo kwabanye abaninimzi, zibenza zingabafanele abo basebenza phantsi kohlahlo-lwabiwo mali olungqongqo. Kukwakhona nendawo encinci yokwenza i-attic, ukubeka izithintelo kwizindlu ezincinci ezifuna i-intshi nganye yesithuba sayo ukuba sandiswe.

UJerkinhead Roof

Indlu yophahla yaseJerkinheadUphahla lweJerkinhead ludibaniso lwentambo kunye nophahla lwenyonga. Luchazwa ngamacala amabini amakhulu kunye namacala amabini amancinci. Ikwabizwa ngokuba luphahla olusikiweyo okanye uphahla lwesiNgesi kwaye ngamanye amaxesha lubizwa ngokuba luphahla lwenyonga lwaseDatshi.

Olu hlobo lophahla lukhetho olusebenzayo nolunomtsalane. Ibolekisa ubungangamsha bendlu kwaye igqibelele kwimbali, ilizwe lakudala, iVictorian kunye nendawo yokuhlala yesiqhelo. Kukwaxhaphake kwii-bungalows kunye nezindlu eziphefumlelweyo. Ngaphandle kwe-aesthetics ebonakalayo yokongezwa, uphahla lwejerkinhead lukwabonelela ngozinzo olukhulu. Kwakhona ukumelana nomoya, kulula, kwaye kulula ukunxiba. Nangona kunjalo, uphahla lwejerkinhead alunikezeli ngendawo eninzi yokugcina xa kuthelekiswa negesi. Ikwafuna umsebenzi owongezelelweyo kodwa ayizukubangela ukonyuka okukhulu kwiindleko zokwakha.

uhambo olukhulu lokuhlamba

Uphahla lweSaltbox

Uhlobo lwephahla lweetyuwaIhlala ibonwa kwizindlu eziphefumlelweyo zobuKoloniyali nakwimizi yemveli yaseNew England, uphahla lwebhokisi yetyuwa luphahla olude olude oluthi thambeka ngasemva. Inoyilo olulinganayo kunye nelinye icala elithambekileyo kunye nohlobo lokuxhomekeka kwelinye icala. Kule mihla, olu hlobo lophahla luhlala lusetyenziselwa iishedi kunye neegaraji. Uyilo olulula kodwa olunomtsalane lusebenzela zombini iindlela zerustic nezangoku zokwakha.

Oluphahla luyilelwe ukubonelela ngegumbi elongezelelekileyo kodwa kusetyenziswa izinto ezincinci. Olu hlobo lophahla lulungile kwimimandla enemvula enzima kuba icala elithambekileyo libonelela ngamanzi amdaka. Inoyilo oluzinzileyo noluzinzileyo xa kuthelekiswa nophahla lwegable.

Ngokwakhiwa, uphahla lwebhokisi yetyuwa lunoyilo olunzima ngakumbi ke ngoku kusekho ukubakho kweendleko ezonyukayo. Isandi kufuneka siyilwe ngononophelo ukuqinisekisa ukuba siyangqinelana nodonga lwangasemva lwesakhiwo.

Uphahla ophahleni

Uphahla oluthe tyaba kwindlu yanamhlanjeUphahla oluthambekileyo lusetyenziselwa ukuchaza naluphi na uphahla oluthambeke kancinane okanye olupheleleyo. Olu hlobo lophahla lulondolozo olusezantsi kuba inkunkuma ayiqokeleli phezulu. Amanzi ahambe ngokulula ezantsi elandela amathambeka. Uphahla oluthambekileyo luhlala lusetyenziselwa isimbo sasekhaya sanamhlanje.

Ibhabhathane yophahla

Indlu yophahla lwebhabhathaneUphahla lwebhathane lunemilo engu-V ebonakala ngathi ngamaphiko amabini alungele ukubhabha. Ikwabizwa ngokuba luphahla luka-V okanye uphahla lwaseLondon. Oluphahla lunxulunyaniswa nolwakhiwo lwangoku lwekhulu leminyaka. Iyathandwa ngamakhaya acocekileyo kunye neetropiki njengoko i-engile ephezulu inokuxhotyiswa ngeefestile ezinkulu ezinciphisa iindleko ngokokukhanya kunye nobushushu. Abanini bamakhaya bayaluthanda uyilo olunomdla kuphahla lwebhathane olwenza izindlu zibonakale zinkulu.

Eyona njongo yophahla lwamabhabhathane kukuqokelela amanzi embindini wophahla. La manzi ahlala etshintshelwa kwitanki yokubamba yolunye usetyenziso olufana nokunkcenkceshela izityalo, ukuhlamba okanye nokusela. Nangona kunjalo le nkqubo ifuna iziseko zophuhliso ezizodwa ukuze isebenze ngokufanelekileyo. Ukuba ayenzelwanga ukuqokelela amanzi, uphahla lwebhabhathane lusasebenza kakuhle ekufunxeni amanzi kuba luhamba ngokukhululekileyo, oko kukhokelela ekunciphiseni umngcipheko wokubumba nokubumba. Uphahla lwebhabhathane lukwanokunyamezelana okukhulu komoya kwaye luyakwazi ukumelana nomonakalo obangelwe zizimo zemozulu ezibi.

Olu luyilo oluntsonkothileyo, oluthatha ixesha elide ukwakha, kungoko kubiza kakhulu xa kuthelekiswa nolunye uyilo. Ngelixa inokucoca amanzi ngokulula, ikwanotyekelo lokuqokelela inkunkuma nekhephu. Ngaloo ndlela, ukugcinwa okongeziweyo kunye nokugcinwa rhoqo kuyadingeka.

Uphahla lwedome

Indlu yophahla lweedome geodeicUphahla lwedome sisiqingatha sophahla olujikeleze ubume. Olu hlobo lophahla luhlala lubonwa kwizakhiwo zonqulo ezifana neecawe, iimosque kunye namangcwaba. Inembali ende yokwakha eyaqala kudala eMesopotamiya, ePersi, eTshayina, e-Egypt naseRoma. Kule mihla, uphahla lwedome ludla ngokusetyenziswa kumaziko emidlalo, kwizakhiwo zomthetho nakwizinto ezisebenzayo. Ukongeza uphahla lwesitayile sedome lusetyenziswa kwindlu yekhithi ye-geodeic efumaneka ikakhulu kunxweme oluseNtshona lwe-U.S. Uphahla lwedome lungasetyenziselwa ukugubungela ikhaya lonke, okanye iinxalenye zalo nje, njenge-gazebos okanye i-cupolas.

Olu hlobo lophahla alunikezeli ngee-aesthetics ezizodwa kodwa nemisebenzi ebonakalayo ngokunjalo. Inokuma imimoya ephezulu kwaye ifuna ukulungiswa kancinci. Ihlala ixesha elide kwaye iyamelana nemozulu, kunye nomgangatho wayo kuxhomekeke ikakhulu kwizinto ezisetyenzisiweyo ukuyakha. Umthi uhlala usetyenziselwa ukwenza olu hlobo lophahla, nangona kunjalo ezinye izinto ezinjengesinyithi zikwacetyiswa ukuba zikwindawo yokugcina esezantsi.

Eyona nto iphambili kuyo lixabiso layo. Ngenxa yoyilo lwayo oluntsonkothileyo, iindleko zokwakha zinokunyuswa.

Uphahla lweSawtooth

Uhlobo lwophahla lweSawtoothNjengoko igama lisitsho, olu phahla luneengqumba zothotho njengamazinyo esarha. Yenziwe ngophahla olubini okanye ngaphezulu olumiselweyo oluhambelana nomnye kwaye lucwangciswe ngendlela ethe nkqo kunye nomphezulu othe tyaba. Olu hlobo lophahla lwaludla ngokubonakala kwizakhiwo zemizi-mveliso ezinje ngeefektri. Ngoku, izindlu zokuhlala zilulungelelanisile nolu phahla kodwa zinemiqolo embalwa zihlala zibini ukuya kwezintathu. Iifestile zihlala zibekwa phantsi kophahla ukuvumela ukukhanya okungaphezulu kwendalo kungene kulwakhiwo. Ikwalungele kakhulu izindlu ezinobuhlobo ezineepaneli zelanga okanye iinkqubo zokufudumeza komhlaba.

Nangona kunjalo, uyilo oluntsonkothileyo lubiza ngaphezulu. Ikwanazo neemfuno zokulondolozwa okuphezulu kwaye inamathuba aphezulu okuvuza ngexesha lemvula enkulu. Olu hlobo lophahla alulungelanga izindlu ezikwiindawo ezinekhephu elinzima.

Uphahla olugobileyo

Uphahla olugobileyo kwikhaya langokuOlu hlobo lophahla luyafana neskillion kodwa ngeenqwelomoya ezigobileyo. Ubume bayo bunokuhamba ukusuka kwigophe elincinci ukuya eluphahleni olunemilo. Ingasetyenziselwa ukugubungela lonke ikhaya okanye inxenye yayo, njengokungena. Inokuyilwa ngendlela yokuba ikwazi ukuziqhelanisa nemozulu ekhoyo yendawo yendlu- yeendawo ezichaphazeleke kwimimoya ephezulu, ithambeka elingaphantsi lilungele ukusetyenziswa, ngelixa ithambeka elingaphezulu linokubakho. isetyenziselwa indlu efumana imvula kunye nekhephu. Eyona nto ixhaphakileyo kuphahla olugobileyo sisinyithi kuba sinokuthambeka kwaye sinokugoba ngokulula.

Injongo yolu phahla ingaphezulu kubuhle kunokomelela. Zinomdla ngakumbi, zala maxesha kwaye zahlukile xa kuthelekiswa nezinye iintlobo zophahla. Ubume obunobuqili kunye nobuhle bephahla eligobileyo luthambisa izinto zokwakha zendlu.

Kuhlala kubiza kakhulu ukwakha, kuxhomekeke kuyilo lophahla. Kwakhona, ifuna ukhathalelo olongezelelekileyo ukuqinisekisa ukuba amanzi abaleka ngendlela eyiyo ukunqanda ukuvuza.

Isakhelo sophahla

Uhlobo lwesakhelo kophahla kwikhabhathiUphahla oluyi-A lophahla olunxantathu olujongeka njengonobumba A, yiyo ke loo nto imvelaphi yegama layo. Ikwafana nentente elula enje ngesakhiwo. Olu hlobo lobume bophahla luqhele ukusetyenziswa kwizakhiwo ezincinci kwaye lubonisa uninzi lweefestile kwibala elingaphambili nakwelomva lendlu. Ifumene ukuthandwa kwayo ngexesha le-50'sto 70's.

Ngaphandle kokubonelela ngokukhanya kwendalo kunye nomoya ongenisa umoya, uphahla lwesakhelo nalo luhlala ixesha elide. Le ndlela yophahla ilunge kakhulu kwiikhabhathi kwiindawo ezifumana inani elifanelekileyo lekhephu. Olu hlobo luvumela ukuba ikhephu liwe ngokulula eluphahleni ngaphandle kokufumba kunye nokwenza umonakalo kulwakhiwo. Iyasebenza nakwindawo ezishushu njengoko igcina ihambisa umoya oshushu phezulu, igcina indlu ipholile imini yonke. Uyilo olulula lwenza kube lula ukwakha, kunye nabanye abathengisi ababonelela ngeekiti ezipheleleyo ezilungele ukuhlangana.

Nangona kunjalo, eyona nto iphambili kuphahla olwenziweyo yindawo echithiweyo. Olu hlobo lophahla lunokunciphisa umda wendawo yokuhlala ngaphakathi endlwini njengoko isebenza ngakumbi kubume bebali elinye. Kukwakhona nokukhetha okungaphantsi kokucwangciswa kwaye iindonga zangaphakathi zendlu zitsibekile, ezinokwenza indawo izive icinene kakhulu.

Uphahla oluhlaza

Indlu eluphahleni eluhlaza kunye nezityalo ze-sedumUphahla oluluhlaza luyanda ngokwanda phakathi kweendawo zokuhlala. Olu hlobo lophahla luyinxalenye okanye lugqunywe ngokupheleleyo kutyani. Phakathi kweentlobo zophahla, uphahla oluhlaza lolona luhambelana nokusingqongileyo kunye namandla.

Uphahla oluhlaza lubonelela ngezibonelelo ezininzi. Inika ubushushu bendalo ngokugcina iqondo lobushushu lendlu lipholile, ngenxa yoko kukhokelela ekongeni iindleko zombane. Ikwanayo nenkqubo yokuhambisa amanzi ngokufunxa amanzi emvula. Uphahla oluhlaza lukwanyusa ixesha lokuhlala kophahla kabini ukuya kathathu, ulwandise ukuya kuthi ga kumashumi eminyaka. Kuyanceda kwimpilo kabani njengoko kucoca ukungcola emoyeni nakumanzi emvula. Ukongeza kuloo nto, yenza indawo yokuhlala yezilwanyana zasendle kwaye inceda imeko-bume iphela. Ikwayifihle kakhulu yezakhiwo ezakhiwe ehlathini.

Nangona kunjalo, kusekho izinto ezithile ezimbi kolu hlobo lokuphahla. Okokuqala bubunzima bayo, uphahla oluhlaza luyasinda xa kuthelekiswa nezinye izinto zokuphahla. Ngenxa yoku, uphahla oluhlaza lukwanendleko enkulu xa kuthelekiswa nophahla lwendabuko, njengoko ludinga inkqubo yenkxaso eyongezelelweyo ukuhambisa umthwalo owongezelelweyo wezityalo. Ekuhambeni kwexesha, olu tyalo mali lusabonakala ukuba lubalulekile ngenxa yezibonelelo ezibalaseleyo ezinikezwa luphahla oluhlaza. Ulondolozo lukwanobunzima ngakumbi, lufuna ukugcinwa ngokungaguquguqukiyo njengokunkcenkceshela, ukondla, ukukhula kunye nokuchumisa, ukuqinisekisa ukuba izityalo zikhula kakuhle kwimeko-bume yazo. Ukwakha olu hlobo lophahla lweemfuno ngokungqinelanayo ngokungqongqo kurhulumente wengingqi.

Uyilo lweNdlu lweGalleries onokuyithanda:

Iingcamango zoMbala weGaraji - Ipeyinti yokuboniswa kombala - Imibono yoMnyango woMnyango wangaphambili